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George Eglisham 'The Forerunner of Revenge (1626)'

British Library, Additional MS 22591, ff. 31r-39v


The fore-run[n]er of Reuenge

vpon the Duke of Buckingha[m] for [th]e poysoning of [th]e most potent K[ing] James of hapye memory K[ing] of g[rea]t Brittaine, And [th]e lorde Marq[uess] Ha[m]bleton, And others of the Nobilitye

discouered by Mr George Eglisha[m] Doc[tor] off Phisicke, & latelye one of K[ing] Ia[mes] his phis[ician] for his Ma[jes]t[ie]s person aboue the space of those tenne yeares

From FranckeForte 1626

Iohn Sudbury et George Humble Londini excuderunt

31v {gap: elision}32r

To the most potent Monarch Charles Kinge of greate Brittaine Fraunce and Ireland

The humble Compl[ain]t of George Eglisham Doctor of Phisicke, and lately one of Kinge Iames his Phisitons for his Ma[jes]tyes Person aboue [th]e space of tenn yeeres.

Sir noe bett[e]r motive there is for A sincere safe governem[en]t then the sincere meditac[i]on of death (equallinge Kinges to Baggars) and of the severe and exact Iustice of God, requiringe of him that the good suffering miserie in this liffe should receive Ioye in the other: and the wicked flourishing securelye in this, might be punished in the other. That w[hi]ch pleaseth lasteth but A mom[en]t, that w[hi]ch tormenteth is everlasting, many thinges wee see vnrewarded or vnpunished in this inferior world, w[hi]ch in the vniversall waights of Gods Iustice must be cou[n]terpoysed elswhere: but willfull and secrett murther hath seldome bine observed to escape vndiscovered or vnpunished ever in this liffe, such A p[ar]ticuler and notable revenge p[er]pe:tuallye followeth it, to the end that they whoe are either Atheists Lucianists or Machiavellists maie not trust to much in their owne Witts in doeing soe horrible Iniustice

Would to God yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye would consider well what I haue often saide to my M[aste]r. Kinge Iames, The greatest Pollicye is Honestie And howsoever anye man seemes to him selfe wise in compassinge his desire by Trickes yet in the ende he will prove A Foole, for falshood ever deceaveth her owne m[aste]r at lengthe, as the devill (author of all Falshood) doth, leaving his adherents desolate when they have greatest need of helpe, Noe Falshood w[i]thout Iniustice / Noe Iniustice with out Falshood, albeit it were in the p[er]son of thea Kinge. Ther is noe Iudge in the world more tyed to doe Iustice then a Kinge, whose Coronation tyeth him vnto it by solempne oath w[hi]ch if he Violate, he is false and p[er]iured, It is Iustice that maketh kinges, Iustice that mainetaineth Kinges & Iustice that bringeth both Kingdomes and kinges to distrucc[i]on, to fall in miserye, to dye like Asses in ditches, or more beastly deathes w[i]th eternall Infamye after death, as all [th]e Histories fro[m]32v from time to time doe declare and testifie, what need hath mankinde of Kings but for Iustice? men are not borne for them but they for men; what greater, what more royall occasion in the world could bee offered vnto yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye to shewe yo[u]r vnpartiall dispotition in matter of Iustice at [th]e first e[n]trie of yo[u]r raigne, then this w[hi]ch I offer, my Iust complaint against Buckingham! by whom yo[u]r Maiestie suffereth yo[u]r selfe soe farr to be ledd, that yo[u]r best subiects are in doubte, whether hee is yo[u]r kinge, or you his. If yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye knowe and consider how he hath terannized over his Lord and M[aste]r Kinge Iames, [th]e world lye creator of his Fortunes, howe insolent, howe ingrate an oppressor, what A Murtherer and Traytor he hath proved himselfe towards him, howe treacherous to his vpholding Freind the Marquesse of Hamelton and others, yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye maye thinke [th]e givinge waye to the lawes comaunded against him to yeild A most glorious Feild for yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye to walke in, and displaye the banner of yo[u]r royall vertues; yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye maye p[er]happs demaunde what interest I haue therein! what have to doe therw[i]th [tha]t I should stirr all others being quiett Sir [th]e quiettnes or stirring of others expecteth onlye A begining fro[m] me, who[m] they knowe to be soe much obliged to stirr, as [tha]t none cann bee more, both in respect of knowledge of passages, and regard of humaine obligation, and of my independencie fro[m][th]e accused, or anye one [tha]t his power or Creditt can reache vnto. Manye knowe not what I knowe therein, others are little or nothinge beholdinge to the dead, others albeit they knowe as well as I and are obliged as deepe as I, yet dare not complaine as safely as I, being out of theire reache, whoe are inseperable fro[m] him by his inchauntm[en]tes, and able to obscure himselfe vntill that the Power of iust revenge vpon him and his adherentes bee obtayned fro[m] God, what I knowe sufficient ag[ain]st him I haue sett downe in my Petition to the Parlyam[en]t, vnto w[hi]ch if yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye dismisse him, sequestred fro[m] yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye, cheiffelye in an accusation of Treason, yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye shall doe w[ha]t is most iust, and deliver yo[u]r selfe and yo[u]r kingdomes fro[m][th]e Captivitie in w[hi]ch he holdeth them and yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye oppressed. Howe easilye maye I ecclipse myselfe fro[m] his power to doe mee harme vnlesse he haue legions of infernall spirritts at his comaund to pursue mee, yo[u]r Ma[jes]tye maye well know, I being vltra mare vnto these dominions where he raigneth and rageth, howe farr I am obliged to complaine more then others, I will onlye in few words expresse, [tha]t neither yo[u]r Ma[jes]ty nor anye man maye thinke other wise, but [tha]t I haue most iust reason not to be silent in wro[n]ges soe intollerable. The Interest of bloude w[hi]ch I haue to anye of them of whose death I complaine either by the house of Balgony Landy or by the house of Silvertonhill, albeit it is easye to be made manifest and sufficient to move mee, yet is it33r it not the sole motive of my breache of silence /

For birthe and Ancestors and what wee haue not done scarce call I ours /

But the Interest of received courtesies and the heape of infallible tokens of true affection is more then sufficient to stirr mee thereto, vnlesse I would prove the most ingrate in the world, and sencelesse of the greatest inuiryes cann bee done to my selfe. For whoe hath killed kinge Iames and the Marquesse Hamelton, in that parte of iniurye w[hi]ch is don[n]e to mee, therein he hath done as much as robbed mee of my liffe and all my Fortunes, Freindes w[i]th such constant & loving impr[e]sio[n]s of mee are neither to be recovered nor dulye valued. For his ma[jes]tye fro[m] the third yeere of my Age did practise hono[ra]ble tokens of singuler favor towards mee, daylye augmented them in word in writte, in deeds, accomplished them w[i]th guifts, Patents, offices recomendacio[n]s, both in private and publique graced mee. soe farre that I could scarce haue asked him anye thinge w[hi]ch I could not allsoe obtaine, Howe much honor he hath done to mee there needeth noe wittnes vnto yo[u]r ma[jes]tye, whoe is sufficient for many. Noe lesse was my Lord marquesse of Hamelton his Freindship established by mutuall obligac[i]on of most accepted offices continued by our Ancestors these 3: generations, ingraven in the tender myndes and yeeres of the Marquesse and mee, in [th]e pr[e]sence of our Soveraigne Kinge Iames. For when [th]e Marquesses Father, w[i]th the right hand vpon his head and the left vpo[n] myne, did offer vs younge in yeares soe ioyned to kisse his ma[jes]t[ie]s hand, recomending mee vnto his ma[jes]t[ie]s Favor, said, I take God to my wittnes that this young mans Father was the best Freind that ever I had, or shall haue in this world. Wherevpo[n] the younge lord resolved to put trust in mee, and I fullye to addicte my selfe vnto him, to deserue of him as muche comendac[i]ons as my Father did of his Father. This royall celebrac[i]on of our Freindshipp rooted it selfe soe deepelye in my mynde, that to my selfe I per[ur]posed this reme[m]brance, giveing it to the younge Lord and to my Familyar Freindes,and sett it vpo[n] all [th]e Books in my Studdye / Semper Hameltonu[m] &c. /

Alwaies [th]e Kinge & Halmelton
within thy Breast p[re]serue
What euer be thy action
Let Princes two deserue /

Neither was it in vaine, for both our loves increased with our Age, the marquesse promisinge to engage his liffe, and his whole estate if need were, and to share his Fortunes w[i]th mee, and not onlye p[ro]missing, but allsoe p[er]form[m]ing when ever there was occasion, yea for my Cause offering to hazard his liffe in combate, whose mynde in wishing mee well, whose tongue in honoringe33v honoringe mee, and whose handes and meanes in defendinge me, both absent and pr[e]sent vnto the last period of his liffe, hath assisted mee, I should be more tedious then were fitt, [i]f I rehearsed eu[er]y p[ar]ticuler Favor, soe manifestlye knowne to the whole Court, and to the Freindes of both. Whoe then can iustlye blame me for demau[n]dinge Iustice as well for the slaughter of the marquesse Hamelto[n], as of my most gratious Soveraigne Kinge Iames. seeing I know whom to accuse. My P[ro]fessio[n] of Phisicke nor my educatio[n] to l[ett]res cannot serve to hinder mee fro[m] vndertaking the hardest e[n]terprise that ever anye Romane vndertooke, soe farr as the lawe of co[n]science will give waye

why shall I staye at thy decaye of Hameltons the hope
why shall I see thy foe soe free vnto his Ioye giue scope
Rather I praye a dolefull daye set me in cruell fate
Then thy death strange without revenge or him in safe estate./

This Soule to Heauens hand to the dead I vowe
noe fraudfull mynde, noe trembling hand I haue
If Pen it shun, the Sworde reuenge shall followe
Soule Pen and Sword w[ha]t thinge but iust doe craue /

What affection I bore to the living, the same shall acco[m]panye the dead. For when one whose truthe and sinceritie was well knowne to mee, told mee that it were better for the cheiffest of my Freindes the Marquesse Hamelton to be quiett at home in Scottland then to be eminent in the Courte of England, to who[m] by the opynion of all the wisest sorte, his being at Courte woulde cost him noe lesse then his liffe, such that I stretching forth my Arme (appr[e]hending some plottes laid against him) answered, If no man dare revenge his death I vowe to God this hand shall reveng it Scarcelye any other cause can be found then the bond of o[u]r most close Freindshipp. Whye in the scroll of the Noblemens names whoe were to be killed, should I be sett downe next to [th]e ma[r]quesse of Hamelton) in these wordes (The Marquesse of Hamelton & doctor Eglisham to Embalme him) to witt, to the end that noe discoverer or Revenger should be left. This Roll of names (I knowe not by what destinie) was found nere vnto Westminster about the tyme of the duke of Richmondes deathe, and, brought to the Lorde marquesse by his Cozin the daughter of the Lord Oldbar one of the pr[i]vye Councell of Scottland, did cause noe terror in mee vntill that I did see the marquesse poysoned, and remembred [tha]t the rest therein noted were dead, and my selfe next pointed at survivinge, whye staye I anye more. the case requireth the pen noe more, but the sworde /

I doe not writte soe boldlye because I am among Bucking[hams] Enimyes34r Enemies, but I haue retired my selfe to his Enemies, because I was resolved to write, & doe earnestlye against him as m maye appeare/

For since the Marquesse of Hameltons death, the most noble Marquesse of Fiatta Ambassador for the most Christian Kinge of Fraunce, and allsoe Buckinghams Mother sent on everye side to seeke, invitinge mee to them, but I did forsake them, knowing certainelye the falshood of Buckingham, whoe would rather haue suffered [th]e Ambassador to haue receaved an affront, then to be vnsatisfyed of his bloudthirstie desire of my bloud, to silence mee w[i]th death (for according to the Proverbe The dead man cannot bite) [i]f he could haue found mee. For my Lord Duke of Lenox, whoe was ofte[n] crosed by Buckingham, w[i]th his Brother, and the Earle of Southampto[n] and others nowe dead, was one of the Roll found of those that were to be murthered, well assured mee, that were Buckingha[m] once misliked, noe Apologie, noe Submission, noe reconciliac[i]on could kepe him from doinge mischeife, Neither doe I write this in this fashio[n] soe freelye for any entertainem[en]t here pr[e]sent, which I haue not now anye future, w[hi]ch I haue noe ground to looke for, seeinge Buckingham hath soe misledd yo[u]r Ma[jes]ty, that he hath caused not onlye heere, but also allsoe vnto all nations, all Brittaines natives to be disgraced and mistrusted, yo[u]r ma[jes]tyes royall worde w[hi]ch should be inviolable, yo[u]r hand and seale w[hi]ch should be true to be most shamefullye violated, and yo[u]rselfe to be held most ingrate for yo[u]r most kinde vsage in Spaine, w[hi]ch Buckingha[m] maketh to be requited w[i]th iniuries in A most base and false manner, vnder p[ro]testation of Friendshipp, (A bloudye warre being kindled on both sydes) whereby he hath buryed w[i]th Kinge Iames the glorious title of Peace-maker Kinge, whoe had done much more iustlye & advisedly if he had procured peace vnto Christendome, whereby small hope I haue obteyning pardon in my iust complainte, vnto wh[i]ch my true affection vnto my dead Freindes murthered and the extreame detestac[i]on of Buckingha[m] his violent pr[o]ceedinge hath brought mee. yo[u]r ma[jes]ty maye finde most iust forces of reason to accuse him in my Petition to the Parlyam[en]t, w[hi]ch shall serue for a touchstone to yo[u]r ma[jes]tye, and A Whetstone to mee and many other Scottishmen. And w[hi]ch (yf it be neglected) will make yo[u]r ma[jes]ty to incurr such A censure amonge all vertuous men in the world, that yo[u]r ma[jes]tye will be loathe to heare of, and I astonished to expresse at this tyme. A Serpent lurketh in the Grase. Noe oth[e]r way there is to be found to save yo[u]r honor, but to give waye to Iustice against the Traytor Buckingha[m], by whom manifest daunger approached vnto Kinge Iames. If yo[u]r ma[jes]tye will take anye cou[r]se therein the examinac[i]on vpo[n] oath of all those that were about the kinge and the marquesse of Hamelton in their sicknes, or at [the]ir deathes, or after their deathes, before indifferent Iudges (noe depend[e]rs vpo[n] Bucking[ham]) will serue for sufficient proffe of Buc[kinghams] guiltines. In [th]e meane tyme vntill I see what shalbe [th]e yssue of my co[m]plainte w[i]thout anye more speech I rest / yo[u]r ma[jes]t[ie]s daly suppl[ican]t Geo[rge] Eglisha[m] To


To the Most hono[ra]ble [th]e Nobillitye Knights and Burgeses of Both [th]e houses of Parlyam[en]t of the Kingdome of Englande

The humble Petition of Mr George Eglisham Doctor of Physick and one of the Phisitians to K[ing] Iames of happie memorie for his ma[jes]ties Person aboue the space of 10: yeeres /

Whereas [the] Cheiffe humaine care of Kinges and Courtes of Parlyam[en]t is the pr[e]servation and protection of the subiects lyves, Liberties, and estates from private or publique iniuryes, to the end that all thinges maye be carryed w[i]thin the equall ballance of Iustice, w[i]thout the w[hi]ch noe Monarstie, noe Como[n] wealthe noe Societie, noe Familie, yea noe mans liffe or estate canne consist, albeit never soe litle, It cannot be thought vniust to demaund of Kinges and Parlyam[en]ts the censure of wrongs. The Considerac[i]on whereof was soe greate in our late monarche of happye Memorye Kinge Iames, that he hath often publiquelye p[ro]tested even in the presence of his apparant heire, [tha]t if his owne Sonne should com[m]itt Murther, or anye such execrable act of iniustice, he would not spare him, but would haue him dye for it, and would haue him more severelye punished then anye other. For hee well observed noe greater iniustice, noe iniquity more intollerable can be done by man to man then murther In all other wronges Fortune hath recourse, the losses of honor or Goodes maye be repayred, satisfacc[i]on maye be made, reconcilyac[i]on maie be p[ro]cured, soe longe as the p[ar]tie iniured is alive, but when the person murthered is bereft of his liffe, what can restore it. what satisfacc[i]on can be given him, where shall the murtherer meete w[i]th him to be reconciled to him, vnlesse he be sent out of this world to followe his spirritt, w[hi]ch by his wickednesse he hath sep[ar]ated fro[m] his bodye. Therefore of all iniuries, of all [th]e acts of iniustice, and of all thinges most to be looked into, murther is the greatest, and of all murthers the poysoning, vnder trust and profession of Freindshipp, is the most haynous, w[hi]ch if you suffer to goe vnpunished, lett noe man thinke themselves soe secure to live amongst you, as amongst the wildest and most furious Beasts in the world. For by vigilancie & industrie meanes maye be had to resist or evite the most violent beast that35r that ever nature bredd, by whom false and treacherous harts from poysoning murtherers what witt or wisedome can defend, This concernes yo[u]r Lo[rdshi]pps everye one in p[ar]ticuler aswell as any, They of whose poysoning yo[u]r Petitioner Co[m]playneth, to witt King Iames, The Marquesse Hamelton, and others whose names aft[e]r shalbe expressed, haue bine the most eminent in the kingedome, and sate on those honorable Benches whereon yo[u]r honors nowe doe sitt The p[ar]tie whom yo[u]r Petitioner accuseth, the duke of Buckingha[m] is soe powerfull that vnlesse the whole bodye of Parlyam[en]t laye hold on him, noe Iustice can be had of him. For what place is there of Iustice? what office of the Crowne? what degree of hon[o]r in the Kingdome, w[h]ich he hath not sold? and sould w[i]th such craft [tha]t he can shake the buyers out of them and intrude others at his pleasure. All the Iudges of the Kingdome, all [th]e officers of the State are his bound Vassalls or Allies, or affraide to become his outcasts, as is notorious to all his ma[jes]t[ie]s true and loving Subiects yea soe farr hath his ambitious practise gone, [tha]t what he would haue done, should haue bine p[er]formed whether the kinge would or not, and what the Kinge would have done, could not be done yf hee opposed, whereof manye instances maye be given whensoever they shalbe required, neither are they vnknowne to this hon[or]able assemblye. Howsoever the meanes he vseth be lawfull or vnlawfull, humaine or diabolicke, soe hee tortureth the kingdome, that he p[ro]cures the calling, breaking or continewing of Parlyam[en]tes at his pleasure, placing or displacinge the officers of Iustice, of [th]e Cou[n]cell, of the Kings Cou[r]te, of the Courtes of Iustice to his viole[n]t pleasure, and his ambitious vilanie moveth him. What hope then can yo[u]r ma[jes]tye haue that this complaint shall be heard, or being heard, shall take effect, to obtaine Iustice he maye dispaire, to p[ro]voke the duke to send forth A poysoner, or other murtherer to dispatche him, and to send him after his dead Freindes allready murthered, he maye be sure this to be the event. Let the event be w[ha]t it will, come whatsoever can come the losse of his owne liffe yo[u]r Petitioner valueth not, having suffered the losse of the lives of such eminent Freindes, esteeming his liffe can be noe better bestowed then vpon the discoverye of the haynous murtherers. yea the iustnes of the cause, the dearnes and neerenes of his Freindes murthered, shall pr[e]vayle soe farr w[i]th him, that he shall vnfolde vnto yo[u]r honors and to the whole world these reasonns ag[ain]st [th]e accused and named by him the author of soe great murthers Georg Villiers Duke of Buckingham w[hi]ch ag[ain]st anye pr[i]vate man are sufficient for his appr[e]henc[i]on and torture. And to make his complaint not very tedious, he will onlye for the pr[e]sent declare vnto yo[u]r honors the two most eminent murthers committed by Buckingham, to witt of the Kings ma[jes]tye, and of the Marquesse of Hamelton, w[hi]ch for all the subtiltie of his poysoninge art could not be soe cunninglye conveyed as the Murtherer thought, but that God hath discovered manifestlye the Author. And to obserue the order of the tyme of their deathe, because the Lord Marquesse of Hamelton dyed first35v first, his death shall be first related, even from the roote of his last quarrell w[i]th Buckingham, albeit manye other quarrells haue p[ro]ceeded fro[m] tyme to tyme betwixt them /

Left margin: Concerninge the Poysoninge of the Marquesse of Hameltonne / ❀ Buckingha[m] once raysed from the bottome to the toppe of Fortunes wheele, by what deserte by w[ha]t right or wronge, noe matter is it by his carryage verified the p[ro]verbe Nothinge more Proude then baser bred when it doth rise aloft suffered his ambition to carrie himselfe soe farr, as to aspire to match his bloude with the bloud royall both of England & Scottlande, and well knowing that the Lord marquesse of Hamelton was acknowledged by Kinge Iames to be the prime man in his dominio[n]s whoe next to his owne lyne in his proper season might clame an hereditarie Title to the kingdome of Scottland by the daughter of Kinge Iames the Second, and to the Crowne of England by Iohan of Somersett wiffe to king Iames the First, declared by Act of Parlyam[en]t heretrixe of England in her due ranke, neu[er] suffered the Kinge to be at rest, but vrged him allwayes to send some of the privye Cou[n]sell to sollicite the marquesse to matche his eldest Sonne w[i]th Buckinghams Neece, making great p[ro]misses of co[n]dit[i]o[n]s w[hi]ch the meane Familye of the Bride could not p[er]forme, without the kings liberallitie, to witt fiftye thowsand pounds sterling (valluinge five hundred thousand Florins) w[i]th the Earledome of Orkenay vnder the Tytle of A duke, whatsoever the Marquesse would accept, even to be the First Duke of Brittanie. The glorious Title of A duke [th]e marquesse refused twice vpo[n] severall reasons reserved to himselfe. The matter of monye was noe motive to cause the Marquesse to matche his sonne soe vnequallye to his degree, Seeing Buckingham himselfe the cheiffe of his kindred was but A novice in Nobillitye, his Father obscure among Gntlemen, his mother A serving Woman, and he being infamous for his Frequent consultac[i]ons w[i]th the Ringlead[e]rs of Witches, principallye w[i]th that false doctor Lambe, publiquelye condemned for witchcraft, whereby the marquesse knowing that the kinge was soe farr bewitched to Buckingham [tha]t if he refused [th]e Matche demaunded, he should finde the kings deadlye hate against him, and seeing that Buckinghams Neece was not yett nubile in yeares, and that before the mariage should be confirmed, a waye might be found out to annull it, vnto w[hi]ch he was forced by a deceiptfull importunitie, therefore he yeilded vnto the Kings desire of the matche, Wherevpon Buckingham and his faction, fearinge that delaies might breed letts, vrged my Lord Marquesse to send for his Sonne vpo[n] A Sunday Morning betymes in all hast fro[m] London to Courte at Greenewitch, where never A word was spoken of marriage to the young Lord till a little before supp[er] And to make it more authenticke Buckingham caused his Neece to be laid A bedd w[i]th the marquesse his sonne for a short36r shorte tyme in the kings Chamber, and in his ma[jes]t[ie]s pr[e]sence albeit the Bride was yet innubile. manye were astonished at the suddaine newes thereof, all the marquesse his Freindes fretting thereat, and writting vnto him verye scornefull letters for the same. The marquesse having satisfyed [th]e Kinges demaund, did what he could to pr[e]vent the confirmation of the Marriage, and intended to send his Sonne beyond [th]e Seas, to travell throughe Fraunce and Italye, and soe to passe his tyme abroad, vntill the tyme that meanes were found to vntie that knott w[hi]ch Buckingha[m] had vrged the kinge to fasten vpo[n] his Sonne. But Buckingham to controvert the marquesses designe, caused the Kinge and the Prince to make the marquesses Sonne to be sworne gent[leman] of the Princes Bed Chamber, and soe to be deteyned w[i]th him w[i]thin the kingdome vntill that [th]e Bride should bee of yeares ripe for marriage /

The tyme expired that Buckinghams Neece became marriagable, Buckingham sent to the Marquesse to desire him [tha]t the Marriage might be compleatlye confirmed. The Marquese not willing to heare of anye such matter, answered breiffelye he scorned the Motion. This answere reported to Buckingham, and he seeing himselfe vnlikelye of his ambitions matchinge of his Neece, and p[er]ceaving that the Lord Marquesse was able to ra raise a great Faction against him, whether Kinge Iames did live or dye, was mightelye incensed against the Marquesse, and at his first encounter w[i]th him did challenge him of speakinge disdainefullye of him and his house. The Marquesse replyed that he did not remember of any offensive words vttered by himselfe against Buckingham. Then Buckingham prowdlye said aut vnto him, Out of thine owne wordes I will iudge thee, for you haue said you scorned the motion of matchinge w[i]th my house, w[hi]ch I made vnto you. The Marquesse answered that if he had said soe, it became not the duke to speake to him in that fashion, Soe Buckingham threatned to be revenged, [th]e Marquesse vttered his defyance, and thus the quarrell began: w[hi]ch fower or five times reiterated, and as often recounted by the Marquesse de Fiatta a litle before the Marquesse of Hamelto[n] fell sicke: where it is evident that the quarrell hath bine very violent that need soe manye reconciliations. The dukes fyre of his anger being inextinguished as king Iames oft did censure him in his absence albeit a Favorite, that he was wonderfully vindicative, whose mallice insatiable to my Lord Marquesse of Hamelton did well shewe itselfe as shall appeare heereafter, Hardlye can any man tell whether by the Marquesse in his Sicknes Buckingham was more supported then accused of the poison given, or to be given him, For he would not trust of anye thinge that was sent vnto him by any of Buckinghams Freindes36v Freindes, but he would first haue some of his Servantes tast it before, and for the love that was mutuall betwixt him and yo[u]r Petitioner, whom he would never suffer to goe out of his sight, during his sicknesse, yo[u]r Petitioner allsoe tasted of all that he tooke at that tyme, vnto whom his suspic[i]on of Bucking[ham] he expressed by name and to other sufficient wittnesses, whoe will iustifye it vpo[n] Oathe, yf there be anye course taken therin for the searche therof. All the tyme of his Sicknesse hee intreated yo[u]r Petioner not to suffer my Lord of Buckingha[m] to come neere him, But yo[u]r Petitioner hauing often sent word and allsoe sometymes signified himselfe to Buckingham that there was noe fitt oppertunitie to see the Marquesse p[re]tendinge some thinge to be ministred vnto him. But when yo[u]r Pet[itioner] could finde noe more excuses, hee told my Lord Marquesse [tha]t he had put my Lord of Buckingha[m] awaye soe often, that he could not keepe him awaie anye longer, but that he must needes see him. Then he knowing Buckinghams visitt to p[ro]ceed of dissimulation, requested yo[u]r Pet[itioner] at least, to find the meanes to gett him awaye quicklye, w[hi]ch yo[u]r Petitioner did, interrupting Buc[kinghams] discourse, and intreating him to suffer my Lord Marquesse to be quiett, This did evidentlye shewe my Lord Marquesse his disliking and distrusting of Buckingham, whereas he was well pleased w[i]th other Noble Mens companye all the time of his Sicknes. The duke and my Lord Denbigh would not suffer his owne Sonne to come to him, pr[e]tending [tha]t he was sicke w[hi]ch was false, For at the tyme that my Lord Marquesse called for him after [tha]t yo[u]r Petitioner advised his L[ordshi]pp to dispose of his Estate and of his conscience, because his sicknes was not w[i]thout dau[n]g[e]r, w[hi]ch yo[u]r Petiotioner foure dayes before my Lords death, did in such manner, that he gaue him noe cause to dispayre of his health but intreated him to comitt all the care of his health to God and his Phisitions, assuring him howsoever hee had gotten wronge abroad, hee should gett none in [th]e Cure of his disease At length his Lo[rdshi]pp burst out into these wordes to my Lorde Denbigh. It is A great crueltie in you, [tha]t you will not suffer my Sonne to come to me whilest I am a dying [tha]t I maye see him and speake to him before I dye. Soe they delayed his cominge w[i]th excuses vntill my Lord his agonye of death was neere him, to the end that hee should not haue tyme to give his Sonne private Instructions, to shun the mariage of Bucking[hams] Neece, or to signifye vnto him the suspic[i]on [tha]t he had of Poyso[n], For they had rather his Sonne should knowe anye thinge then eith[e]r of these. yet manye did suspect his poyson before he dyed. For two dayes before his death two of his servantes dyed w[i]th manifest Signes and simptomes of poyson, one belonging to his wine Celler and another to his Kitchin /


The Fatall houre being come [tha]t my Lord marquesse deceased, yo[u]r Petitioner entreated them that were present to suffer noe man to touch his Bodye vntill [tha]t he retourned to see it opened, for then he p[ro]tested earnestlye, that all the time of his Sicknes, he iudged himselfe to be poysoned, and in all consultac[i]ons vrged Antidotes to be administred. But this poyson was such and soe farre gon, that none could helpe. Neu[er]thelesse to haue the matter concealed Buckinghams Folkes would haue had him buryed that same daye night in Westminster Church, & the Ceremonyes of the Buriall to be made afterwards, saying that such delicate bodyes as his could not be longe kept. But his Freindes taking hold of the caveat given them by yo[u]r Petition[e]r refused soe to doe, and replyed that they would haue him (as became him) buryed in Scottland in his owne Chappell, where his Ancestors haue bine buyed about these 400: yeeres agoe, and that his Bodye must be first visited by his Phisitions. /

Noe sooner was he dead, when the force of the Poyson had overcome the Forces of his Bodye, but it began to swell in such sort, that his thighes were as bigg as sixe times [th]e natu[r]all Proporc[i]on his Bellye became as bigg as the bellye of an Oxe, his Armes as Bige, as the naturall quantitye of his thighes, his Necke soe broade as his Shoulders, his Cheekes over the topp of his Nose, that his Nose could not be seene or extinguished, the Skynne of his Forehead over his Eyes, and the same skinne w[i]th all the rest of the skynne of his head two fingers highe swelled, his haire of his beard Eyebrowes & head soe farre distant one fro[m] another as if an hundred had bine taken out betwixt everye one, and when one did touch his haire it came awaye w[i]th the Skynne as easilye as if one had pulled hay out of A heape of haye, He was all over his breast Necke, Shoulders and Armes blistered w[i]th Blisters as bigge as ones Fist, w[i]th Blisters I saye of sixe divers colours full of Waters of the same colours, some whit, some Blacke, some red, some yellowe, some greene, some blewe, and that as well w[i]thin his bodye as without. Allsoe the Carities of his Liver greene, his Stomacke in some places a litle purpurated, w[i]th a blewish calami[n]e matter adheringe to the sides of it, his mouthe and Nose fominge bloude mixt w[i]th Froth of divers collors a yard high

yo[u]r Petitioner being sent for to come visitt his Bodye, and his Servants all flocking about him, sayinge, see, see presentlye weepinge said he was poysoned, and that it was a thing not to be suffered. Moreover he said that albeit his speech might cost him his liffe, yet seeing his sorrowe had extorted [tha]t speech out of him, hee would make it manifest, and would haue a Iury of Phisitians pr[e]sent. Some of my Lord Marquesse of Hamelt[on]s Freindes saide, wee must send to my Lord duke that hee maye send his Phisitians. But yo[u]r Petitioner replyed, what haue wee to do w[i]th the dukes Phisitians. Let vs haue indiffere[n]t men. Captaine Hamelton hearinge yo[u]r Petitioner soe boldlye take37v take excepc[i]ons at Buckingham, and iudging that he had good reason for w[ha]t he had spoken, said, for all that let vs send to the duke, and signifye [tha]t they all whoe see the Marquesses body both Phisitions and Surgions and others, thinke that he is poysoned, & that his Freindes desire more Phisicons out of the Colledge of London besides the dukes Phisitions to beare wittnes in w[ha]t case the marquesses bodye is in, and then if the dukes conscience be guiltie (said the Captaine) it will shewe itself, w[hi]ch indeed it did, For the duke being advertised thereof, sent for his owne Phisici[on]s and others out of London, whom he caused first to be brought to him before they went to see the marquesses bodye giveinge them his direcc[i]ons in these wordes. My m[aste]rs there is A bruite spread abroade that the marquesse of Hamelton is poysoned. Goe and see, but beware what you speake of Poyson (w[hi]ch he said in A threatning forme of deliverye) for nowe everye Nobleman that dyeth must be poysoned. If his conscience had not bine guilty should he not haue comaunded the Phisitions to enquire by all meanes possible, and make it knowne rather then to suppresse the speech of the poysoninge. These Phisitions being come, your Petitioner w[i]th the one hand leading doctor More to the Table wher the marquesses bodye was layd to be opened, and w[i]th the other hand throwing of the Clothes from the Bodye, said to him, looke you heerevpon this pittifull spectacle. At the sight whereof doctor Moore lifting vpp both his handes, and his Hatt, and his eyes to the Heavens astonished, said Iesus blesse mee, I never sawe the like I cannot knowe him, I cannot distinguish A Face vppo[n] him, And in like manner all the rest of the doctors and allsoe [th]e Su[r]gio[n]s affirmed [tha]t they never sawe the like, albeit they had travelled and practised throughe the greatest p[ar]te of Europe, Onlye one that sawe my Lord of Southamptons bodye opened in Holland (w[hi]ch Lord was allsoe one of Buckinghams opposites) said that my Lord of Southampto[n]s bodye was blistered all w[i]thin the breast as my Lord Marquesses was. doctor Lister one of my Lord of Buckinghams Creatures, seeing doctor Moore and others soe amazed at [th]e sight of my Lords Bodye, drewe first him aside, and then the oth[e]rs one after another, and whisp[er]ed them in the Eare to silence them. Where vpon manye went awaye w[i]thout speaking one word, the others whoe remayned acknowledged those accidents of the dead bodye could not be w[i]thout poyson, but they said the could not know how such A subtile art of poysoning could be brought into England yo[u]r Petition[er] replying [tha]t monye could bringe both the Arte and the Artist fro[m] the farthest p[ar]tes of the world into England. From whence since yo[u]r Petition[er] dap[ar]ted, hee hath conferred w[i]th the skillfullest Pestmakers that could be found, whoe visitt [th]e bodys of those that dye, of the Venim of the Pest, They all admire the discripc[i]on of my Lord Marquesses bodye, and testifye [tha]t never anye of the Pest haue such accidents, but Carbuncles, bubons, or the Spotts, noe such huge blisters with waters, and such huge vnifirme swellinge to such dimensities about sixe tymes [the] natu[r]all p[ro]portio[n]38r p[ro]portion. But he hath mett w[i]th some whoe haue practised [th]e poysoning of doggs, to trye the forces of some Antidotes, & they haue found that some poysonns haue made theire doggs sicke for A Fortnight or more, w[i]thout anye swelling, vntill they were dead, and then they swelled above measure, and became blistered w[i]th waters of divers colors, and the haire came awaye w[i]th the skynne when it was touched

The Phisitions then whoe remayned were willing to testifye w[i]th their owne hand written [tha]t my Lord marquesse was poysoned, but yo[u]r Petitioner tould them it was not needfull, seeing wee must attend Gods leasure to discover the Author, [th]e matter being soe apparent and soe manye hundreds having seene his body to wittnes it, for the dores were kept open for everye man to behold & to be wittnes whoe would, The duke of Buckingham making some cou[n]terfeited shewe of Sorrowe to men of g[rea]t quallitie, found noe other shift to divert the suspic[i]on of [th]e poysoning of the marquesse fro[m] himselfe, but to laye it vppo[n] his m[aste]r the King, sayinge that the marquesse for his p[er]son, Spirritt and carriage, was such, [tha]t he was borne worthye to raigne, but the Kinge his mast[e]r hated him to deathe, because he had A Spirritt too much for the Comon wealth, whereby the duke shewed himselfe noe good subiecte of the kings, whoe made the kings humor to be tyrannicall & the King a bloudthirstie murtherer, and A most vild dissembl[e]r, haueing heaped soe manye honors daylye vpo[n] the marquesse even to the verye last, making him Lord high Steward of his ma[jes]ties house and Iudge of the Verge Court, who[m] he had made before vicroye of Scotland, for [th]e time of Parlyam[en]t in Scotland, Earle of Cambridge, A Privye Cou[n]sellor in England, & K[nigh]t of the Garter, as yf he had raysed him to all these honors, that [th]e murtheringe of him might be the lesse suspected to p[ro]ceed fro[m] him

The Kings nature hath bine allwayes observed to bee soe gratious and soe free harted to everye one, [tha]t he would neu[er] haue wished [th]e Marquesse anye harme, vnlesse [tha]t Bucking[ham] had put great feares & iealousies in his mynde, for yf anye other had done it, he would haue acquainted his Favorite therew[i]th, & then was it Bucking[hams] dutie to remove fro[m] the Kinge such sinister conceipts of [th]e m[ar]quesse, as the Marquesse hath often done for Bucking[ham], vpholding him in all occasions, & keeping [th]e Kinge fro[m] giving waye to introduce anye other Favorite Wherefore Buckingha[m] in [tha]t diverc[i]on of [tha]t cryme fro[m] himselfe hath not onlye made the Kinge, but allsoe himselfe guiltie of the marquesses death, But Buckinghams Falshood & evill intention long before was rightlye discou[er]ed, when he did what he could to make the Earle of Nithesdale and my L[ord] Gordon both neere kinsmen to my Lord Marquesse soe incensed at him, that they had likelye all three killed one another, yf it had not bine [tha]t my Lord Marquesse by his wisdome did let them all knowe howe they were abused, yf anye dissimulation be greater the[n] Bucking[hams] lett anye man iudge, For when my Lord Marquesses Bodye was to be transported fro[m] w[hi]t hall to his house at Bishopsgate, Bucking[ham] came out mufled and furred in his Coache, giving out that he was sicke38v sicke for sorrowe of my Lord marquesses deathe, But soe soone as he went to his house out of London before his Cominge to the kinge he triumphed and deminered w[i]th his Faction soe excessively as yf he had gayned some greate victorye, & the next daye com[m]ing to the kinge, put on A most lamentable & mournefull cou[n]ten[n]ance for the deathe of the Marquesse of Hamelton, Noe greater victorye could he have gott to his Mynde then to haue distroyed [tha]t man, who could and would haue fetched his head fro[m] his Shoulders, yf he had out lived kinge Iames, to have knowne his carriage in [th]e poysoning him in his sicknes, wherefore he thought it necessarye to remove the marquesse before hand, The same daye [tha]t my Lord marquesse dyed, Buckingham sent my Lord marquesse his sonne out of [th]e towne keeping him as A Prisoner, [tha]t none could haue pr[i]vate co[n]ference w[i]th him, vntill his mariage of Bucking[hams] Neece was co[m]pleat, but allwayes either my Lo[rd] Denbighe, or my Lady Denbighe or my Lord of Bucking[ham] or [th]e Cou[n]tesse of Bucking[ham], or [th]e Dutchesse of Bucking[ham] was pr[e]sent, [tha]t none could lett him vnderstand how his Father was mu[r]thered, yea yo[u]r Petition[er] himselfe when he went to see him w[i]thin some fewe daies after his Fathers death, was intreated not to tell him of [th]e poysoning of his Father, w[hi]ch he did conceale at his first meetinge, because their sorrowe was too recent, Neither would Bucking[ham] suffer the younge Lord to goe into Scottland to his Fath[e]rs funeralls and to take order w[i]th his Freindes co[n]cerninge his Fathers estate, for feare that [the]ir intended marriage should be overthrowne. This Captivitye of the Lo[rd] Marquesse lasted soe longe vntill [tha]t Bucking[ham] caused his Ma[jes]tye King Charles to take [th]e young Lord with himselfe & Bucking[ham] into S[ain]t Iames Parke, discharging all others to follow them & there to p[er]swade and vrge the young Lord w[i]thout anye more delay to accomplish his marriage w[i]th Bucking[hams] Neece, w[hi]ch instantlye was p[er]formed, soe [tha]t Bucking[ham] trusteth & p[re]sumeth, [tha]t albeit the young Lo[rd] should vnderstand how his Father was poysoned by his meanes, yet being marryed to his Neece, should not stirr to revenge it. To all w[hi]ch is observed before, it is worthie to be added, that [th]e bruite went thro throughe London long before my Lord Duke of Richmonds deathe, or his Brothers, or my Lord of Southamptons, or the Marquesses [tha]t all the Noblemen that were not of Buckinghams faction should be poysoned, & soe removed out of his waye, Allsoe A Paper was fou[n]d in kingstreete about the tyme of the Duke of Richmonds death, wherein the names of all those Noblemen whoe haue dyed since were expressed, and yo[u]r Petitioners name allsoe sett next to [th]e Lo[rd] Marqus of Hameltons name, w[i]th these wordes to embalme him. This pap[er] was brought him by my Lo[rd]Oldbarres daughter cosen germaine to the marquesse. Likewise A Mountebanke about [tha]t time was greatlye cou[n]tenau[n]ced by the Duke of Bucking[ham], & by his meanes p[ro]cured l[ett]res Patents & recom[m]endac[i]on fro[m][th]e kinge to practise his skill throgh all Eng[land] whoe com[m]ing to Londo[n], offered to sell poysons to kill men or Beasts w[i]thin a yeare, or halfe yeare, or two yeares, or a month or two, or what tyme pr[e]fixed anye man desired, in such sorte that they could not be helped nor discovered, Moreover [th]e Christmas before my Lord marquesse his death one of [th]e Princes Footemen saide That some of [th]e great ones at Courte had gotten poyson in his bellye but he could not tell whoe it was

Heere yo[u]r honors considering [th]e pr[e]misses of my Lo[rd] of Bucking[ham] his ambitious and most vindicative nature, his frequent quarrells w[i]th39r w[i]th my Lord marquesse after soe manye reconciliac[i]ons, his threatning of him, his threatning of the Phisitions to speake of poyson, his triumphinge after my Lo[rd] marquesses death, his deteyninge of his Sonne, allmost as A Prisoner vntill [th]e Marriage compleate w[i]th his Neece, th[e] pr[e]ceeding bruite of poysoning Bucking[hams] Adversaryes, the pap[er] of their names found w[i]th sufficient intimation of [the]ir deathe by the co[n]clusicon of [th]e word Embalminge, [th]e poyson monger mountebancke graced by Bucking[ham], maye suffice for ground to take him & torture him, yf he were A private man, And heerein yo[u]r Petition[er] most hu[m]blye & most earnestlye demau[n]deth Iustice ag[ains]t [tha]t Traytor, seeing by Act of Parly[am]ent it is made Treason to co[n]spire the death of a privye Cou[n]cellor, Out of this declarac[i]on Interrogatories maye be drawne for examination of wittnesses, wherein more is discovered to begin w[i]thall, then was laid open at the begin[n]ing of the discoverye of the poysoninge of S[i]r Thomas Ouerbuye /

Right margin: ❀ Conserning [th]e poysoninge of Kinge Iames of happye memory King of greate Brittaine &c ❀ The duke of Buckingham being in Spaine advertised by letters howe [tha]t the kinge began to censure him in his absence freelye, and that manye spoke boldlye to the Kinge against him, and how [th]e Kinge had intelligence fro[m] Spaine of his vnworthie carriage in Spaine, & how the Marquesse Hamelton vpo[n][th]e suddaine newes of [th]e Princes dep[ar]ture had noblie repr[e]hended the Kinge for sending the Prince with such a young Man w[i]thout experience, and in such A private & suddaine man[ner] w[i]thout acquainteing the Nobillitye or Cou[n]cell therew[i]th, wrote A verye bitter Letter to the Marquesse of Hamelton, conceaved newe ambitious courses of his owne, and vsed all [th]e Devises he could to disgust [th]e Princes mynde of the Matche w[i]th Spaine soe farr intended by the kinge, made hast home, where when he came, he soe carryed himselfe that w[ha]tsoeu[er] the kinge comau[n]ded in his Bed-Cha[m]ber, he co[n]trowlled in [th]e next Cha[m]ber, yea a receaved packetts to [th]e king fro[m] forraine Princes, & dispatched Answeres w[i]thout acquainting [th]e kinge therew[i]th not in a great tyme thereafter, whereat p[er]ceaving [th]e king highlye offended, & [tha]t [th]e kings mynde was begin[n]ing to alter towards him, suffering him to bee quarelled and affronted in his ma[jes]t[ie]s pr[e]sence & observing [tha]t [th]e kinge receaved my Lo[rd] of Bristall to bee A rodd for him, vrging daylye his dispatch for Frau[n]ce, and expecting [th]e Earle of Gondomar his coming into Eng[land] in his absence, feared much that that [th]e Earle of Gondomar, whoe as it seemed was gr[ea]tlye esteemed & wonderfullye credited by the Kinge, would second my Lo[rd] of Bristalls accusations ag[ain]st him, He knowing allsoe [tha]t [th]e kinge had vowed [tha]t in dispight of all [th]e Divells of hell he would bring [th]e Spanish matche about againe, and that the Marquesse of Enechosa had given the kinge badd impressions of him: By whose Articles of accusations of him the kinge himselfe had examined some of [th]e Nobillitie and privye Councell, & found out in the examinac[i]on [tha]t Bucking[ham] had said after his com[m]ing from Spaine. That [th]e king was an old man, it was now tyme for him to be at his rest, and to be confined to some Parke, to passe [th]e rest of his time in hunting, and [th]e Prince to be crowned. The more the kinge vrged him to be gone to Fraunce [th]e more shifts he made to stay, for he did evidentlye see [th]e king was fullye resolved to ridd himselfe of the oppr[e]sion wherein he held him /

The kinge being sicke of A tertian Ague & [tha]t in [th]e springe, w[hi]ch was of it selfe never found deadlye. The Duke tooke his opp[or]tunitie when all the kings Doctors were at Dinner, vpon [th]e mundaye before the kinge dyed, w[i]thout their knowledge or consent, offered a whit powder39v powder to the kinge to take, the w[hi]ch the kinge longe time refused, but overcome by his flatteringe oppertunitie, at length tooke itt, dranke it in whit wine, and ymediatlye became worse and worse falling into manye soundings and paynes or violent Fluxes of [th]e Bellye, soe tormenting that his ma[jes]tye cryed out alowd O this w[hi]t powd[e]r this whit Powder, would to God I had never taking it, it will cost mee my liffe, In like manner the Countisse of Buckingham my Lorde of Buckinghams Mother vpo[n] the Frydaye thereafter, [th]e Phisic[i]ons allsoe being absent & at dinner, & not made acquainted w[i]th her doings, applyed A Plaster to the Kings harte & breast, wherevpo[n] his ma[jes]tye grewe fainte, shorte breathed & in greate agonie. Some of [th]e Phisitians after dinner retourned to see the kinge, by [th]e offensive smell of [th]e Plaster, p[er]ceaved somethinge to be about [th]e kinge hurtfull vnto him, & searched what it could be, found it out, & exclaymed [tha]t [th]e kinge was poysoned. Then Bucking[ham] entering comau[n]ded the Phisicons out of the Roome, caused one to be comitted pr[i]son[er] to his owne Chamber, and another to remove fro[m] Courte, quarrelled w[i]th others of the kings servants in [th]e sicke kings owne pr[e]sence, soe farre that he offered to drawe his sworde against them in the Kings sighte, And Buckinghams mother kneeling before the kinge w[i]th A brazen face cryed out Iustice Iustice S[i]r I demaund Iustice of yo[u]r ma[jes]tye, The kinge asking her for what? shee answered for that w[hi]ch their lives is noe sufficient satisfacc[i]on, for saying that my Sonne and I haue poysoned yo[u]r maj[es]tye, Poysoned mee said the kinge, w[i]th that he turninge himselfe sounded, The Sunday thereafter the king dyed, & Bucking[ham] desired the Phisicians whoe attended the kinge to signe w[i]th their hands, writts, A testimonye, that the Powder w[hi]ch he gave the kinge was a good sufficient and safe medicine, w[hi]ch they refused to doe; Bucking[hams] Creatures did spread abroad A rumor in London [tha]t Bucking[ham] was soe sorrie at the kings deathe, that he would haue dyed, that he would haue killed himselfe yf they had not hindered him, w[hi]ch yo[u]r Petitioner pu[r]poselye inquired of them that were neere him at that time, whoe said, [tha]t neith[e]r in the time of the kings sicknes, nor after his deathe, hee was any more moued then yf there had neither happened either sicknes or deathe to the kinge. One daye when the kinge was in great extremitie, hee rode post to London to pursue his sister in lawe, to haue her stand in sack Clothe at Paules for Adulterye, Another time in [th]e kings Agony, he was busie co[n]triving & co[n]cluding a maryage for one of his cosens, ymediatlye after [th]e kings death, [th]e Phisitian w[hi]ch was comau[n]ded to his Cha[m]ber was sett at libertie w[i]th A Caveat to hold his Peace, [th]e others threatned if they kept not good tonges in their heades. But in [th]e meane tyme [th]e kings Bodye and head swelled aboue measures, his haire w[i]th the skinne of his head stucke to the Pillowe, his nayles became loose vpon his Fingers and Toes, yo[u]r Petition[er] needeth to saye noe more to vnderstanding men. Onlye hee one thinge he beseecheth, [tha]t taking [th]e traytor whoe ought to be taken, w[i]thout anye feare of his greatnes the other matters be examined, the Accessaries w[i]th the guiltie punished/



No introduction.


British Library, Additional MS 22591, ff. 31r-39v,

Languages: English, Latin

Creation date: 1626


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      Transcribed by:

      Elaine Brown (Transcription Volunteer)