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'A Brief Consideration of the Two Kingdoms in the Hands of One King (Post-1603)'

British Library, Additional MS 11600, ff. 65r-72v


A breife Consideration of the twoe Kingdomes in the handes of one Kinge as followeth . / .

Wherein three kin thinges are considered.

Left margin: 1 First the Comodities that may result of such union

Left margin: 2 Secondlie the discomodities that may happen therby.

Left margin: 3 Thirdly a discourse or relation of sundrie manners and formes of unitinge of kingdomes and dominions togeather, wherby may be conceaved w[hi]ch manner of them may serue fittest to the present purpose / .

As touchinge the first namely a considerac[i]on of the comodities arisinge of such vnion theise motives amonge many others may be remembred.

Left margin: 1 People of seuerall nations of seuerall condic[i]ons and of seu[er]all natures brought vp vnder severall lawes and yett subiect to one kinge or Monarchy, are not w[i]thout much travell and providence heald together in vnitie or good agreem[en]t, except som[m]e equall bond or knott of vnion may be devised to continewe and unite them togeather / Therefore such vnion is necessarie and the fruite thereof is tranquillitie peace and future felicitie of government when boeth people shalbe equally respected yf the lawes stand vpon equall termes in the favor of their Soveraigne and enioye equall ymmunitie and priviligs of theire p[er]sons and possessions . /

Left margin: 2 When the people of a kingdome w[hi]ch is more remote shalbe conioyned in the bond of league loyaltie and obedience w[i]th a people of a setled estate and condic[i]on of large meanes wealth strength and power there muste of necessitie ensue a greater civillitie and a better temperature in the people soe knitt and conioyned togeather whereof the dominion of Wales wholie united by the statute of 27 Hen: 8 unto the realme of England doth yeald plentifullie example sithence w[hi]ch time of vnion thereof to England the same hath produced instead of continuall rebellions and tumults tranquillitie of state civillitie of manners better manurance of soile more wealth and abillitie in the welsh then was found formerlie in that nation for that they nowe are capable of the same ymmunities and stand in equall degree w[i]th the English nac[i]on everie man beinge naturallie given (where nature by eerror and barbarisme is not corrpted) to communitie societie, and civillitie . / .


Left margin: 3 Mallefactors and evill doers to eschewe the condigne punishment w[hi]ch theire misdemeanors have deserved doe comonlie flie from one Territorie into another where they thincke that the sworde of Iustice either cannot att all or at least might not w[i]thout som[m]e difficultie pursue them, and hence it is that the confines frontiers borders and marches of kingdomes are most subiect to incursions spoiles rapines and other detestable outrages, the offendor flyinge from the one into the other vpon hope they haue to eschewe the punishm[en]t all w[hi]ch are easilie taken awaie by the vnitinge of boeth kingdomes into one whereby the batable groundes are confined partlie into the one and partlie into the other kingdome and the borderinge people brought vnder the obedience of the lawe w[hi]ch manifestly sheweth it selfe when kinge Edgar reduced the heptarchie or seven severall kingdomes in this Countrie into one Monarchie so that the miserable estate of this land torne into sundrie empires and soe consequentlie being full of incomodities was thereby in short season exceedinglie reduced The avoidinge of w[hi]ch inormities and to take away the lyke occasion of impunities of offendors is recited in the preamble of the Statute made the 27 yeare of Hen: 8: to haue bene the cause of the vnitinge of Wales unto England made by that Statut . /.

Left margin: 4 Yf the lesser vnited kingdom haue therein any comodity worth regard either in respect of fertillitie of soile comerce of traffique riches of Minnerall or the like, the people of the greater dominion will soe fasten theire foetinge therein as that they will be never thence roeted out or removed againe w[hi]ch is a benefitt to the kingdome to the w[hi]ch the vnion is made /

The considerac[i]on whereof caused king Edward the third when hee attempted the conquest of Fraunce and had proclaimed him selfe kinge, thereof the 14th yeare of his Raigne to provide by act of Parliam[en]t that the Crowne of England should bee eu[er] disioyned and be in him and his posteritie a difficult dominion from the kingdome of Fraunce fearinge as it seemeth least soe in tyme the lesser (namelie Englands territorie might be confounded in the greater as to the dilligent reader of the Act of Parliament made 14 Edw: 3 Statute 4th may appeare . / .


The difficulties and discomodities that might result of such vnion . / .

Left margin: 1 Whereas betwene the kingdomes to be vnited there is no equallitie or mutuall retribution, that is where the people of one kingdome cannot in shewe enioye as much benefitt and proffitt by that vnion as the people of the other kingdome there such vnion cannot be made w[i]thout sedic[i]on murmur and discontent of that Nac[i]on w[hi]ch may haue the lesse evident proffitt or advantage thereby for such vnion may drawe a greater number of the people vnited into the other kingdome than is convenient of whose multitud the people of that other kingdome wilbe ever ielous and maligne theire p[ar]ticuler favor w[hi]ch such people may require at the hands of their Comon Soveraigne . / .

Left margin: 2 By the vnion of kingdomes a totall alterac[i]on of lawes of those nations or att the least of one of them is introduced, but lawes were neu[er] in any kingdome totallie altered w[i]thout greate daunger of the everc[i]on of the whole state, And therefore it is said well by the interpreters of Aristotle that lawes are not to be chardged but uppon those cautions and circumspections, 1 Raro, ne incomodam 2 In melius ne periculum, 3 prudentur et sesim, ne reipublicæ naufragiu[m] ex innouatione sequatur: Lawes are to be changed, 1 seldome least such change prove to the disadvantage of the State 2 for the better least it breade danger to the State, 3 warelie and by little and litle least the Shipwrack of the Comon wealth and the totall everc[i]on of {All} be occasioned by such innovation / There can be no p[er]fect vnion of twoe kingdomes except there be established a meeting of boeth States and as it were a com[m]on parliament for boeth kingdomes, for the gen[er]all causes w[hi]ch shall equallie concerne boeth people, such parliam[en]t or assemblie haue all the Cantons and confederate estates of Heluetias or Swisars for theire gen[er]all causes although eu[er]y estate p[ar]ticularlie haue neu[er]thelesse his p[ro]per and peculiar parliam[en]t in constitutinge of w[hi]ch gen[er]all parliam[en]t and assemblie of boeth Nac[i]ons in any vnion to be made greate care and vigilancie is to be vsed in apointing what persons shalbe called togeather of those estates least the one exceed the other in number of suffrage or voice et sio sepe numero maior pars unicat meliorem . / . Where vnion of twoe kingdomes is made there consequentlie doe followe theise inconveniencies the people of the one Nation as they stand in the favor of theire Prince maay procure vnto them selues the greatest offices the ecclesiasticall dignities, the possessions of the forts and millitarie strength boeth by land and Sea of the other nac[i]on, to the greate disadvantageof the State of that Nation w[hi]ch shalbe soe surprised. . / .


The third thing proposed was the considerac[i]on of the diuers formes of Vnited States and Kingdomes wherby may be obserued which shalbe the best to be followed.

Left margin: 1 First there are sundrie manners of vnitinge of kingdomes vnder the goverment of one Soveraigne the first may be called the vnion of freedome and denizac[i]on, That is when the people of boeth kingdomes is made free of each other Nac[i]on to enioy equall liberties and ymmunities in boeth States and to be capable to purchase landes and to beare office in eache other dominion w[i]thout impeachment or regard of the want of Naturalizac[i]on or birth in that manner the Scotts were free in Fraunce by an edict made by Hen: 3. and likewise the French were free in Scotland, As by a lyke Act of Parliament made octauo Parliamento Mariæ Regine cap: 65 in the Scottish Statuts w[hi]ch was done duringe the marriage of that Queene with the Daulphin of Fraunce. And this is not greately preiudiciall to be yealded unto by parliaments of boeth Nations for that the Subiects of eache nation, w[hi]ch heareafter shalbe borne and hauinge noe kinge and Soveraigne wilbe such even by their birth and that by the lawe of Nac[i]ons and it is only a benevolence and a grace to those that were borne before both kingdomes descended into the one hande, and such a grace it is as the kinge of those Nac[i]ons may conferr and bestowe by his regall pwer w[i]thout the assent of his States, For it is a prerogatiue royall and incident and belonginge to every kinge to naturalize and make denizen whome he shall thincke expedient by his Charter And this manner of vnion is easiest to be assented vnto and a good ground and foundac[i]on of such further vnitinge w[hi]ch only tyme hath power to p[er]fect /

Left margin: 2 The second manner of vnitinge kingdomes or dominions is the vnion of lawe and Iustice when as besides the priviledge of denzac[i]on enioyed equallie by boeth people, boeth Nac[i]ons are governed by the selfe same lawes. / This kinde of union conquer[o]rs for the most p[ar]te doe pursue and followe and soe did the kings of England conqueringe Callice Gascoyne & Guynes in Fraunce, and Barwick in Scotland conioyninge the same to the Crowne of England causinge the English lawes to be there practised and 67r put in execuc[i]on. But where twoe kingdomes doe descend vnto one Monarch ruled formerlie by seuerall constituc[i]ons and lawes. This mann[er] of vnion is more difficult to accomplish because noe Nac[i]on willinglie doeth alter theire lawes to the w[hi]ch they haue beene borne and brought vpp as the provinces of Netherland may well wittnes w[hi]ch sundrie yeares haue waged warre and endured sundrie assaults of the kinge of Spaine for the mainten[a]nce of the lawes and auntient priviledges and for the abandoninge of the inquisic[i]on w[hi]ch was attempted to be introduced among them And therefore this kinde of vnion requireth tract of tyme ve leges mutentur in melius idque {seu sim} et peditentem ne republice naufragiu[m] ex innouatione sequatur . / .

The third kinde of vnion is the most absolute vnion of kingdomes that may be when not only the people enioy like libertie of denizac[i]on and are ruled by the selfe same lawes but alsoe the name of the kingdomes is abolished and surrendred in the other or ells a newe name devised for boeth soe that there is made onelie one ymperiall Crowne of boeth And this union is was used by kinge {Aluered} by beingebringinge the seaven sevarall pettie kingdomes in this Countrie now spoken of into one entire {}state Meltinge as it were all theire Crownes into one and intitulinge himselfe in sundrie of his Charters totius Anglie Monarchus. This mann[e]r of vnion some kings {est}haue eschewed as meanes to worke the dominaation of theire Styles and titles. And therefore the kinge of Spaine havinge vnited the severall kingdomes of that countrie did nevertheles in there styles preserve Left margin: preserve the memory and titles of those dominions and kingdomes of Castile Arragon Lions Catalonia Mauricia Granado &c /

The meanes to accomplishe this Vnion.

Sith nothinge but tract of tyme can consolidate this kinde of vnion Let vs consider by what meanes in tyme the same may be first accomplished . / .

Left margin: 1 The first and principall meane is vnion of Religion and this is the vndoubted vnion of hearts when they doe agree in the profession of on faith. for where there is noe vnitie of religion there can be noe hartie loue And therefore although theCantons of the Swysars beinge of some difference of religion amongest them selues are neverthelesse combined yett that league is not grownded vpon hartie loue 67v but hath his foundac[i]on rather vpon the feare of theire com[m]on iniurye and is many tymes subiect to sondry and sinister opinions conceaved each of other whoe therefore will attempt the vnion of twoe kingdomes must not only endeavor to haue theire religion and doctrine to be one but alsoe must introduce by litle and litle church discipline in them boeth And that discpline must alone be imbraced of either w[hi]ch is fardest of from popular facc[i]on and most obedient to the Ecclesiasticall and civill Magistrate and least subiect to mutabillitie and phantasticall opinions . / .

Left margin: 2 The second principall meane is comunitie of marriage whereby is ingendred betweene the parties in present loue and good likinge and in future betweene theire posteritie comixture of blood whereof sondrie alliances haue theire ofspringe and originall w[hi]ch spreadinge afterwards into manie branches doe drawe the knot of this vnion as close as the same may be knitt by an arme of flesh for soe is this Comunitie somtimes called: of boeth theise speakes the sonnes of Jacob. unto Shem and Hemore his Father wherein although the meaninge of the said sonnes of Jacob was deceitfull yett theire p[er]swasion was exceedinge effectuall. If you wilbe as wee are that eu[er]ye manchild amonge you bee circumsised (there is vnitie of religion required) then will wee gyve o[u]r dawfters vnto you and will take yo[u]r daughters vnto vs (there is the Comunitie of marriage offered) and will dwell w[i]th you and bee one people: there is vnitie promised as the conclusion resultinge out of the twoe former proposic[i]ons by way of a good inducc[i]on / By this meanes did the Conqueror of England amonge many other seeke to settle and secure this Conquest and washed out the blouddie spotts of his sword in the bride cupp of sundry of his most powerfull subiects. For the greatest wardes of the English bloud he married to the Norman nobillitie from whome are descended o[u]r most auntient and honorable families remayninge at this day68r day And moreou[er] did assume this his a prerogative royall now woren owt of vse, that yf any p[er]son of greate possessions of the English nations had died havinge noe masculine yssue but only dawghters and the elder of them married in theire fathers life tyme the kinge bestowed the youngest dawfter w[i]th all her Fathers possessions and patrimonie in marriage where it pleased him, the words of w[hi]ch prerogatiue are thus conceaued in the boekes of lawe, Si aliquis Baro d[omi]ni Regis tenens de rege obisset et non haberet hæredem nisi filias et primogenite filiæ maritatæ sunt in vita patris Dominus rex daret post natam filiam quæ remanet in hereditate patris alicui militum {suoram} cum totæ hereditate patris suæ de qua obisset {sesitus} Ita quod aliæ filiæ nihil recuperent versus post natam filiam in vita sua et omnes reges habuerunt hanc dignitatem a Conquesta. . /

Left margin: 3 A third meane is the educac[i]on of yonge noble personages soe that those of them w[hi]ch are borne of one kingdome may be brought vpp either in the vniuersitie or at or neere the Court in the other kingdome where the kinge in p[er]son is resident whereby although they bee by nature of the one Nac[i]on they shalbe neu[er]thelesse by nurture and instituc[i]on of the other nac[i]on and soe participate of both. Of this will result a double comoditie to the kinge, for not only by this meanes theire educac[i]on shalbe conformable to his highnes good likinge and theire aquaintance and familiaritie grow stronge towards them w[i]th whome they haue beene invred from theire youth but alsoe they may serve as secrett hostages of theire parents fidelitie vnder the pretence of theire civill educac[i]on and soe may boeth states rest by so much the more secure to the kinge and his posteritie. This stratagem hath beene often put in practise to exceeding good purpose in sundrie seasons and is very auncient as may appeare by the Babilonian Monarche whoe after theire conquest of the Isarilites especiallie retained the children of the nobillitie of that Nac[i]on and brought them vpp att Babilon under the M[aste]r of the kings Evenuckes that they should teach them the arts and tounge of the Caldeans soe to waine them from theire religion and make them more assured of that state and soveraingnitie


Left margin: 4 A fourth meane is transplantac[i]on a practise alsoe anciently used by sundrie nac[i]ons for the like did the Babilonian Monarchies wher they transplanted the tribes of Isaraell into Babilon and into other the regions of the east placinge theire owne people in theire roome from whome descended those Samaritans that after enioyed the best and greatest parte of the promised land w[i]th this pollicie also our Norman Conqueror was not unaquainted when hee carried w[i]th him into Normandie some of the English nobillitie whose fidelitie hee stood then most doubtfull of and placed them there w[hi]ch tended to a dowble purpose for by that meanes hee ymployed them to w[i]thstand the rebellion of the Normans and alsoe was free of all feare of theire revolte in England. /

Certein Examples of Vnited Kingdomes most famous of the Kingdomes of Europe. /

In England. The principallitie of Wales vnited to the Crowne of England by the Statute. 27. H: 8.

In Spaine. The kingdome of Navarr and Arragon w[i]th that of Castile and of Spaine and Portugall

In FraunceThe Duchie of Normandie and the Duchie of Brittanie to the Crowne of Fraunce. / .

In GermanieThe Netherlandes and vnited provinces of the lowe countries to the howse of Austria /


As for theire vnion of kingdomes they are lesse famous or ells amonge barbarous nac[i]ons from whom noe sound president can be drawen and deduced. And therefore somewhat shalbe said of everie of the former in order as they are proposed in what manner the same were made . / .

The principallitie of Wales was ancientlie a dominion of it selfe yet holden in fee of the Crowne of England and governed by a prince of the welsh Nac[i]on, For after the Brittons (from whome the Welsh challenge to descend) were invaded by the Saxons and the remnant of them that escaped the Invaders sword were fledd into the mountaines of Cornewall and Wales for theire refuge The Cornish men were subdued afterwards by kinge Athelston and the welsh constituted certein principallities of their owne as the principallitie of Northwales Southwales {P}ewesland w[hi]ch Territories afterward were reduced into one and governed by a prince of theire one Nac[i]on untill kinge Edward the first made a Conquest of Wales in the 11th yeare of his raigne shortlie after w[hi]ch Conquest hee held a parliament at Ruthlan in Wales where a Statute was made for the vnion called comonlie Statutum Wallia and hath theise words diuinæ prouidentia que in sui dispositione non {fallitur} inter alia suæ dispositionis numera quibus nos et regnum nostrum angliæ decorari dignitata est terra walliacum {incolis} suis prius nobis iure subicta iam sui gratia improprietatis nostræ domini{a}n obstæcules quibuscumq[ue] cessantib[us] totalliter et cum integritate connexit et coronæ Regni predicti tanquam partem corporis eiusdem annexit et {vnicuit} and so procedeth on devidinge certen parts of Northwales into Sheires as Anglesey Carnaruon Monmouth and Flint, appointinge A Iustice for theire regiment and strange writts after the manner of the English lawes for theire iudiciall proceeding[es] And therevpon shortly after created Edward Surnamed of Carnarvon (be cause he was borne at Carnaruo[n] Castle beinge his sonne and heire apparant of the Crowne), prince of Wales . / .


Neverthelesse Wales was not totallie governed by the lawes of England untill the 27 yeare of kinge H: 3 that the rest of the dominion of Wales not beinge formerlie Shire ground togeather w[i]th the Barrons Marches were devided into Sheires and officers appointed for the goverment of the same as Iustices . Itenerant Sherifes . Corroners Escheators. Iustices of peace and residinge counsell appointed vppon the borders afterwards some defects of this Statute were amended in the 34 yeare of the same kinge and soe was that vnion dominion subdued wholie to the lawes of England and made parte of the bodie of this realme as by those Statutes appeareth and in that manner was the vnion made of the dominion of Wales vnto the kingdome of England /

The union of the kingdomes of Navarr [&] and Arragon to the kingdome of Castile . / .

Touchinge the vnitinge of the kingdomes of Navarr and Arragon to the kingdome of Castile in what manner the same was made may best appeare by certaine constituc[i]ons of the lawes of those countries called Tanrine constitutiones wherein to this purpose are inserted theise wordes . licet regna Nauarriæ Arragoniæ fuerunt adiuncta Coroniæ Castiliæ non tamen submissa hoc facto nec regno Castilio illa regna sunt submissa seu pristino et solito robore reman serunt et suas proprias leges retinuerunt et ipsoru[m] legibus et consuetudinibus defici enerbus ius ciuile et canonicum obseruerant legibus Castiliæ pretermissis veram quam ius Reges Castiliæ Arragoniam et Nauarram iure optimo obtineant originarij tamen Arragoniæ quod regni Castiliæ benificia sunt eterni et alieginæ originarij Nauarræ naturales Castiliæ quoæd beneficia reputantur. Moreou[er] that the kingdome of Arragon notw[i]thstandinge such vnion enioyed his antient privilidges lawes and customes even untill our tyme may appeare by the cause70r cause of Anthonie Perrez in the late kinge of Spaines daies which Perrez havinge beene one of the Secretaries of State to the same kinge fallinge into disgrace w[i]th his M[aste]r and being imprisoned in Castile shifted him selfe thence and being an Arragonist by birth fled into that Territorie challenginge the benefitt of the lawes of that countrie different from those of Castile from whence he had fled w[hi]ch thing{s} beinge denied vnto him hee then remaininge a prisoner at Carægossa in Arragon was an occasion that the said countrey made an insurrecc[i]on and were upp in armes for the maintenance of theire antient lawes and customes and iurisdicc[i]ons in no other manner was the vnion of Navarr and Arragon vnto Castile /

Touchinge the vnion of the kingdomes of Spaine and Portugall what articles were graunted to the Portugalls by kinge Phillipp the second late kinge of Spaine for preservac[i]on of the former lawes liberties aand Iurisdicc[i]ons of portugall appeare by a late historie of portugall written in Spanish by Anthoni de Ferara and printed att Mad{r}ill in the yeare of o[u]r lord God 1591 w[hi]ch liberties by the same Author in the third boeke of the said historie are comprehended in 24 seuerall articles the effect of w[hi]ch articles is shortly collected as followeth /

Left margin: 1 First that the kinge should bee sworen accordinge to theire antient forme for the preservac[i]on of the antient lawes liberties and privilidges of that kingdome granted by the kings predecessors . / .

Left margin: 2 That there should be noe parliament concerning portugall holden out of that kingdome and that noe treatie of state touchinge that kingdome should bee dealt in out of that kingdome .

Left margin: 3 That then the kinge should goe owt of that kingdome and make victory the same should bee a Portugall or of the bloud royall the sonne brother or kinsman of the king /

Left margin: 4 That all offices of Iustice or concerninge the treasure should be executed by portugalls and noe strangers . / .

Left margin: 5 That all form[er] offices vsuall aswell of the Courte as of the kingdome should stande and contynewe and be exercised by portugalls . /


Left margin: 6 That the same should bee understoed also of all other offices greate and small w[i]thin the kingdome and that the garrisons of souldiers vsuall in places of defence of that kingdome should be portugalls /

Left margin: 7 That the traffiques and navigac[i]ons of Indea and Guinea as well then discovered as after to be discouered appertaine to portugalls should not be in other manner then was then and had beene formerlie vsed and that the officers in those busines should be portugalls and should accomplish theire Navigac[i]ons and traffiques in Portugall Shippes . / .

Left margin: 8 That all money coyned in portugall should be stamped onlie w[i]th the Armes of portugall w[i]thout any other . / .

Left margin: 10 That all prelacies benefices penc[i]ons and offices Ecclesiasticall w[i]thin that realme should be conferred onlie vppon portugalls . / .

Left margin: 11 That the Iurisdicc[i]on or goverment of any Cittie Towne or place w[i]thin the kingdome should not be comitted but to Portugalls . /.

Left margin: 12 That the kinge preferr to all Escheats w[hi]ch hee purposeth of new to graunte to portugalls well deservinge of the kinred of them by whome such escheats haue happened, and yett not to exclude the Spaniards w[hi]ch then were in portugall and had served the former kinge . / .

Left margin: 13 That the state of the Millitary orders of that Realme be in noe case altered . / .

Left margin: 14 That when the kinge or his Successors beinge out of the realme Portugall they doe not take vpp lodgings for theire traine after the manner of Castile but after the antient manner of portugall . / .

Left margin: 15 That the kinge or his Successors beinge out of the realme shall take w[i]th him one person ecclesiasticall a Treasurer A Secretarie A Chancellor and twoe Iudges portugalls w[hi]ch shalbe of the Councell of portugall and alsoe twoe clerkes of the treasurie and twoe Clerkes of the Chamber And the kinge by71r by them and w[i]th theire advise shall dispatch all matters of the kingdome of portugall and that in th langwage of portugalls . / .

Left margin: 16 That all Coridgos and others havinge charge of Iustice shall be and stand in the Realme in the absence of the kinge and hath beene formerlie vsed and that the like be vsed and all the offices of Receavors and Auditors of the Treasure . / .

Left margin: 17 That all matters towchinge Iustice and the Treasure shalbe finallie determined w[i]thin the Realme of portugall . /

Left margin: 18 That the kinge and his successors shall keepe his Chappell residinge in Lisboan as the former kings haue done except when the kinge in person viceroy or governor shalbe in any other place w[i]thin the Realme where then alsoe the same Chappell may bee . / .

Left margin: 19 That the kinge shall receave and advance vnto offices in Court portugalls as well as Spaniards equallie . /

Left margin: 20 That the Queene shall admitt about her person ladies and maides of honor aswell portugallesses as Spanish and seeke to advance them equallie /

Left margin: 21 That there shalbe free passage for booth people in there wares and merchandize in and through the borders and frontiers of eache kingdome w[i]thout impediment . / .

Left margin: 22 That there shalbe extended all fav[o]r possible from the bringinge of bread and corne out of Spaine into Portugall . / .

Left margin: 23 That the kinge shall yearely bestowe vpon the portugalls the benevolence of 300000 Cruzadoes to bee disposed after this mann[er] viz. for the redempc[i]on of portugall Captives to be distribu ted att the discretion of the bretheren of the Miserecordia of Lisboa[n] and 150000 to be layd out and disposed of in such places necessarie as the Chamber of Lisboan should ordaine & the 30000 remaininge for the releife of the countrie beinge visited w[i]th the plague (as then it was) the same to be distributed by order of the Archbishopp and the Chamber of Lisboan . / .

Left margin: 24 That for the provision of the Armadoes of the Indies and especiallie for the defence of the realme Chastisment of pirats and the conservac[i]on of the frontiers of Affrica the kinge should take such advise w[i]th the kingdome of portugall as should be thought fitt although it were w[i]th the helpe of his other States and muche expence of his royall Treasure . / .

{expence} 71v

For the loue that the portugalls bare to tke kinge they desired amonge them his perpetuall residence but whereas the goverment of his other dominions and estats would not p[er]mitt the same they desired hee would be resident as longe tyme as he might And in his absence he would apoint ou[er] them such an one as would tender them esteeme and loue them as his Maiestie did . / .

Theise graces were graunted and published as saieth the Author in the Towne of Tomar20 Maij 1580 and after p[er]mitted and caused to be kept amonge the recordes of [th]e kingdome and of [th]e Chamber of Lisboan for perpetuall memorye . / .

The vnitinge of the Duchie of Normandie to the Crowne of Fraunce . /

Kinge Iohn of England was the lawfull inheritor of the Duchie of Normandie descended vnto him from his Ancestors kings of England & Duks of Normandie but he beinge intangled w[i]th discord & much vexed w[i]th the revolte of the Barrons in England in that intestine warr called comonlie the Barrons warre the kinge of Fraunce taking that oportunitie assaulted the Duchie of Normandie and obtained most parte of the possessions thereof partlie by the Sword and partlie by the Yealdinge of the Normans after the death of kinge Iohn beinge Henrie the thirds sonne purposed to levy a greate power and to pass into Fraunce thereby to recover that w[hi]ch his Father had lost but after some expence to litle purpose there was a conclusion of peace betweene the kinge of Fraunce and the said kinge Henry of England whereby itt was agreed that the kinge of Fraunce should hold the Duchie of Normandie to him and his successors for eu[er] except the Isles of Gersey and Garnesey and other the Isles formerlie beinge partes and belonginge to the said72r said Duchie payinge to the kinge of England three hundred thousand lyuers of Turrone and by this meanes became the Duchie annexed to the Crowne of Fraunce and that nevertheles the antient Customes lawes and privilidges of the said Duchie haue eu[er] remained inviolate and were confirmed to the estates of the said Duchie aswell by kinge Lewes the tenth as by other the succedinge kings of that kingdome as may appeare by the Coppies of the Charters thereof published under the totall La Charter aux Normans in that treatise w[hi]ch is intituled Custumers de pais de Normandi printed att Auranch in the yeare of o[u]r Lord God 1593.

The vniting of the Duchie of Britanie to the Crowne of Fraunce . / .

Certaine Brittaines beinge the antient inhabitants of this Land passed into that parte of Gallia that then was called Armorica and after of them Britania minor and there seatled a certein dominion first under the title of kingdome and after vnder the name of Dukedome the dukes whereof were of the number of the peeres of the realme of Fraunce and some of them were allied to the English were also Earles of Richmont heere in England. This descent of the said duchie soe remained in the bloud of the said Dukes by lyneall Succession untill the tyme of kinge Henry the 7th the same came to the ladie Anne sole dawghter and heire then left alyve of the last duke whose marriage beinge much affected by Maximilian the Emperor he was neu[er] the lesse thereof prevented by the French kinge whoe married the said ladie and thereby annexed the same to the Crowne of Fraunce Yet notw[i]thstandinge in parliament holden by the States of that Duchie theire former lawes Customes and privilidges were eu[er] preserved as by the histories of that Duke Duchie collected out of that Countrie by a learned man of the same Nation not longe sithence imprinted may appeare . / .


The Vniting of the lowe Countries of Germany in the house of Austriæ

The Neitherlands or provinces of Belgiæ came for the most parte by the title of seuerall marriages to the howse of Burgundie and afterwards Marie the sole daughter and heire of Charles the warrior the last Duke of Burgundy by her marriage w[i]th Maximillian the sonne of Fredericke the Emperor brought the title of those dominions in the house of Austria Nevertheless the States of the said provinces vsed their customes and lawes and had theire convenc[i]ons they challenge that noe taxe or imposic[i]on could be imposed upon them or newe lawe promulged And for the infringinge of those theire liberties they toeke armes against the said Maximilian after the death of their said Ladie Marie duringe the nonage of her sonne Phillipp the first. This Phillipp the first sonne of the said Maximilian and Marie married Joan Sister to Phillip kinge of Castile whoe afterward[es] was heire to her brother of the kingdome from whome it descended to Charles the fifte her sonne by the said Phillip w[hi]ch Charles was grandfather to the kinge of Spaine. And thus as breifelie as I could haue I shewed the comodities and discomodities that may result by such vnion of twoe kingdomes in the hands of one Kinge . /



No introduction.


British Library, Additional MS 11600, ff. 65r-72v,

Languages: English, Latin

Creation date: Post-1603


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Transcribed by:

Tim Wales (Research Assistant)