Back to search results

Sir Robert Cotton 'A Declaration How the Kings of England have from Time to Time Supported and Repaired their Estates, Collected out of the Records of the Tower (1612)'

British Library, Hargrave MS 311, ff. 62r-77r


A Declaration how Kings of England haue from tyme to tyme supported and repaired their estates Collected out of the Records of the Tower by S[i]r Rob[er]t Cotten Knight and Barronett Anno nono Jacobi Regis

The King[es] of England have supported and repaired their Estates either

  1. By an annuall p[ro]porc[i]oninge their issues and expenses with their certein and casuall Revenewes And that either by Right margin: 1 Advise of their priuie Councell or 2 Parlia[en]t
  2. By abateing and reformeing the Excesse of Right margin: 1 houshold 2 Retynue & Favorit[es] 3 Guifts & Rewards
  3. By raiseing of money & improueing the Revenewes of the Crowne And that either by the Right margin: 1 Grant of the Subject or 2 Power absolute in the sou[er]aigne

First For proporc[i]oninge the issues and expences with their certeine and {sasuall} Reuenewe

H:4: a[nn]o: 12 when the reuenewe & p[ro]ffitts of the Kingdome, together w[i]th the subsidie of wooll and tenth of the Clergie amounted to noe more then 48000l of w[hi]ch 24000l markes were allotted for Right margin: exrot origini inter acta Cone H 4 marked {p[er] } expence of house, most of the rest to the gaurd of the Sea, and defence of this Kingdome, the Realme of Ireland and Dominions of France. In this estimate [th]e p[ro]ffitts by Wards & mariage was but 1000l & then an ordinance was made by the King Prince and all His Councell there named in the Roll


The like was a[nn]o 11 when for the Charge of house was appointed 16000l and 7000l to the Citty of London in discharge of the Kings Debt to them.

H: 5: a[nn]o: 2: did the like as his father, entringe upon Left margin: Ex rot in actio Cone: a[nn]o: 2 H 5 in fin: ♀ the Roll as an ordinance in future, that [th]e Tre[asure]r of England or of the Exchequer shall annualy make declarac[i]on of the state of their office, & the revenewe of the Realme, together w[i]th the change of the Kings house, chamb[e]r, wardrobe, garrisons, Navy and Debts.

A[nn]o: 3: H: 5: the like assignm[en]ts were made p[ro]porc[i]onable to the revenue, w[i]thin the greate Custome Left margin: Ex rot origini a[nn]o: 3: H:5: m[ar]ked ☘ ☘ of wooles the pettie Custome, tunage & poundage, revenew of Wales, and the Dutchy of Cornwall, [th]e Hamper, the accompts of Sheriffs & Escheators, the exchange of Bullion, and the benefitt of wards and marige (then rated at but 1000 markes apeece) rose not to aboue 56966l, and being at shch time as he undertooke the Conquest of France

Left margin: Ex ordinatione a[nn]o: 9: H: 5: m[ar]ked ◦+ 7 A[nn]o: 9: H:5: the revenew of the Kingdome amounting to 55743:l 10:s 10:d was so by the King w[i]th advise of his Councell ordered as before.

And by this Record it appeareth that the Clarke of the Navy and not the treasuror was the officer only for that place

H: 6: a[nn]o: 12: In p[ar]lem[en]t Cromwell then Treasuror Left margin: Ex rot. Parl[iament] a[nn]o: 12 H:6: no: 24: deliu[er]ing up an account of the Exitus & introitus of the Excheq[ue]r setled the estate of his expence, of w[hi]ch there was allowed for his house 10978l and to his Chamber and wardrobe 2000l The rest to defray the Debts and necessary occasions of the state


Queen Eliz: A[nn]o 12: at w[hi]ch time, besides the ward[es] and Dutchy of Lancaster the proffitt of the Kingdome was 188197l: 4s: the paym[en]ts and assignm[en]ts 110612l: 13s of wh[ic]h the houshould was 40000l priuie purse 2000l Admiralitie 30000l w[hi]ch by an estimate 1 Maij a[nn]o 1604 was 40000l and is now swolne to neere 50000l yearly by the error and abuse of Officers

  1. Secondly for abateing and reformeing the excesse of Right margin: 1 houshold 2 Retynue & Favorit[es] 3 Gifts & Rewards.
  2. First for abateing and reformeing the excesse of houshold either by Right margin: 1 Parliam[en]t or 2 Councell Table

1 By Parliam[en]t

A[nn]o 2: E:2 an ordinance was made prohospitito Regis in ease of the people opprssed w[i]th purveyance, Right margin: Ex vngl manucrip: fo: 29 by reason of the gratnes therof And the motiue of that ordinance was al honneur de dieu et a'l honneur, et au profitt de son sainct Esglise, et a'l honneur et au profit de son peuple selono droit et reson del serement q[ue] le dit n[ot]re Signeur le Roy fist a son Coronm[en]t And about this time was the Right margin: Ex libre dicto Alila Regio Kings house newe formed, and every officer limitted his charge and Salary.

A[nn]o 36: E:3 the houshold was reformed at the Right margin: Rot parl: an[nn]o 36: E: 3 petic[i]on of the people

A[nn]o 1°: R: 2: the houshold was brought to such moderac[i]on of expence as may bee answerable to the Right margin: Rot parl: a[nn]o 1: R: 2: revenews of the Crowne and a Com[m]ission granted at the petic[i]on of the Com[m]ons to survey and abate the the houshold, w[hi]ch not takeing the desired effect A[nn]o 5: the Com[m]ons petic[i]on, that the excessiie number of [th]e meniall servants maybee remidied or otherwise the 63v Realme will be utterly undone, and that his houshold might not exceed the ordinary Reuenews of the Realm &c

A[nn]o 4:H:4 the people craue a reformac[i]on of the King[es] Left margin: Rot parl: a[nn]is 4:1:et:11:H: 4 house And a[nn]o 7° that he would dismise some of the retynue, since it was now more chargable, but lese hon[oura]ble then his p[ro]genitors and that the antient ordinances of the houshold in ease of the people might be kept, and the officers of the houshold sworne to put the ordinances and statuts in due execuc[i]on, and so consider the iust greifes of his subiects by uniust puruiance contrary to the statute, that heereaft[e]r vous poiez viure le vostre biens propres in ease de v[ot]re peuple w[hi]ch the king willinglie doth, as appeareth Left margin: Ex ordinat in rot act. conc: a[nn]o 11 :H:4: marked RR by an ordinance in Councell, whereby the charge of the houshold is limitted to 16000 markes

A[nn]o 12: et: 18: H: 6: the charge of the kings house Left margin: Rot parl: a[nn]o 12 et 18: H:6: is reduced to a certaintie, and lessened by petic[i]on & order in p[ar]lem[en]t

A[nn]o 12: E:4 the king promiseth to abate his houshold, Left margin: Ex rot parl: a[nn]o 12: E: 4 and hereafter to liue upon his owne, So setling a new forme of his Court w[hi]ch is extant in many hand[es] Left margin: Ex lib. ordin hospit tempo: E: 4 intitled ordinations for the Kings house.

And to ease the charge of the Kings house, the queens haue allowed a portion of their Iointure suiteing to their owne expence to the Treasuror of the houshold, As did Phillip the wife of Left margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 27 E: 3: et 7: H:4 Edward the 3d And so likewise Henrie the 4th his wife a[nn]o 7° And Henry the 6th his wife Left margin: Mich: Recept 27: H: 6: no: 9 allowed 2000l a yeare out of her estate.


2 Excesse of houshold abated and reformed by Councell table.

Right margin: Ex Aula Regis fact tempore Ed: 3 Edw: the 3d caused his houshold to bee certeine in allowances, makeing thereof a Booke by way of Ordinance, w[hi]ch is called Aula Regis

Right margin: Act Conc: 8: H:4 marked PP H:4: councelled his sonne th prince, and the rest of his Councell to ordaine such moderate governance of his house, that may conteyne au pleisir du dieu et du peuple

Right margin: Mich Recept 27:H:6: H:6: a[nn]o 27: reduced his charge of house to 12000l whereof 2000l was out of the queenes Iointure.

Right margin: Ex lib: ordinat hospit temp: E:4 E:4:a[nn]o 12 reformeth it againe and publisheth a booke of ord[e]rs for their better direcc[i]on w[hi]ch afterward Cardinall Woolsey for the more hon[ou]r and proffitt of the king amendeth, and still remaineth the ground Right margin: Ord: Cardin Woolsey temp: H:8: worke of the p[rese]nte gouernm[en]t, w[hi]ch being now somuch corrupted, it may seeme fitt, either to put downe the tables, and leaue all attend[an]ts to allowance of money, as France and Spaine doth, or else by setting vp the hall againe, reduce the houshold, to the best, First, and most magnificent order, so all things being spent in publiq[ue] wilbee to the kings hon[ou]r and secret wast by chamber Dyett and purloyning, pr[e]vented to the kings benefit, For, there is nev[er] a backdore in the Court w[hi]ch cost not the K[ing] so little as 2000l yearelie, And few mean houses in Westm[inste]r that are not mainteyned w[i]th food and firing by the stealth of the Court Instrum[en]ts.

2 By abateing and reformeing the excess of retynue and Fovorites.

Right margin: Ex Geruasio Dorobernencis Thus H [th]e 2d did w[i]th Will[ia]m de Ipre Earle of Kent, a Netherland[e]r, and all his Countrymen & follow[e]rs when they grew heavie and a burthen to this State, vnable to foster more then her owne Children./


Left margin: Ex Ric Canonico in vita:R:1: Thus R: 7th did w[i]th Otho Earle of York and all the Bavarians, although hee was the son of his sister, takeing from him that Earldome, for [tha]t the people op[p]osed it, and giueing him in exchange the title of Poictow.

Left margin: Ex lib. semeti Albani et Willi Rishanger et liter Baron: PP Thus H the 3d did w[i]th his halfe Breth'ren the Earle of Pembrooke and B[isho]pp of Winchest[e]r and all the Poictons their follow[e]rs.

Left margin: Ex ordinat 3: E:2: in lib: legu[m] MS: fo: 285 Thus E: [th]e 2d did by his ordinance Que tout le lignage sire pieres de Gaueston soit entierem[en]t ouste destre entoins le Roy et de son seruis Item Burgois de Til soit ouste et non fiaz q[ue] est Mareschall del Eschequer Item q[ue] Bertram Assabi et son frere et seux de Gascoigne et Aymerick de Friscomband soint oustre, et terres prises en le main le Roy.

Left margin: Ex rot par: a[nn]o 10:R:2: Thus R:2: did w[i]th the Bohemians a[nn]o 10: by an Act of p[ar]lem[en]t at the pet[it]ion of the people surcharged

Thus H:4: did w[i]th the Gascoignes & welsh, in like sort ov[er]burdening and impouerishing the king & Realme w[i]th p[er]petuall suites, so that in Court (as [th]e Record saith there were ne ad nul substance des personnes vaylantes et suffesants si besoigne seroit mes de Rascaile pur la grendre part

3 By abateing and reforming the excess of guifts and Rewardes

Hence was it that the wisdome of former times foreseeing the mischeife that the open hand of Left margin: Rot par a[nn]o 11 R: 2: A[nn]o 2:4: et 5:H 4 no: 9: the soueraigne may bring the state into, made a Law: 11: R:2: that whatsoeu[er] cometh, to the k[ing] by Iudgm[en]t, escheate, forfeiture, wardship, or any other wayes, shall not bee giuen away, And that the procurer of any st such guift shall be punished.


Right margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 7:H:4 Thus the p[ar]lem[en]t conteynued 7:H:4 vntill the king were out of Debt, making frustrate the grant and ordeined a penaltie of double value to euery mover or procurer of any such.

Right margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 11:H:4:no:23 The like a[nn]o 11: H: 4: And that noe petic[i]on for anie thing should bee deliu[er]ed the king but in pr[e]sence of [th]e Councell, who might examine it, least the kings wants should light vpon the Com[m]ons

And to keep the hand of H: 6: from wastfull giueing, Right margin: Par: pl: 2: a[nn]o 25 H: 6:m: 24 the Councell induced him to coney to the Arch[bisho]pp of Canterbury and others all proffitts of wards mariages releife, Escheates and forfeitures to defray the charge of his house

Right margin: Ex rot par: a[nn]o 28: H: 6: It is one of the greatest accusac[i]ons ag[ains]t [th]e Duke of Som[m]ersett for suffringe the king to giue away the poss[essi]ons and proffitts of the Crowne in mann[e]r of spoyle, so are the words of the Record.

Right margin: Ex rot par: a[nn]o 1 H: 4: And it was made the first and cheifest Article to depose R:2: for wasting and bestowing the lands & reuenew of the Crowne, vpon vnworthy persons, & thereby ou[er]charging the Com[m]ons by exaction.

3 By rousing of money and improuing the revenuew of the Crowne eith[e]r

Left margin: By [th]e Right margin:

1 gen[er]all as in p[ar]lem[en]t
2 p[ar]ticular as by


grant of the sub[jec]t w[hi]ch is
pow[e]r absolute in the sou[er]aigne

Left margin: 1 Gen[erall] as in p[ar]liam[en]t, where in they giue the king p[ar]t of their owne by way of retribuc[i]on only, as for

Left margin: 1Right margin: Ex lib: rubo in Sec[t]o Ex Iohe[m] Eversden Ex hist Roffensi Defence of the State. Hence grew the scutage gr[an]ted to H:2: R:1: Iohn: and H:3: To: E:1 diuerse fifteenes and tenths for his warrs ag[ains]t the Scotts & Right margin: Ex rot par temp e:3: welshmen The subsidie of wooles & other contribuc[i]ons to E:3: for his warres, And the like granted to R:2: 65v Left margin: Ex rot par: a[nn]o 2:3:7:R:2: a[nn]o 2: 3: 7: so they may bee imployed, in the warre and p[ar]ticular Treasurors to accompt in Parliam[en]t

Left margin: Rot par a[nn]o 8:et 9:H:4: Soe in the 7th and 9th of H:4: on the like Condic[i]on'd

Tonnage and Poundage began :45: E:3. had thence Left margin: Ex rot par: a[nn]o 13: H:4: et 1o:H:5: its originall; and therefore 13 H:4 & 1 H:5 they are granted so in expresse words, and that they proceed of good will, and not of Dutie.

Presidents of this nature are plentifull in all [th]e Rolls of parliam[en]t.

Left margin: 2 For mainten[a]nce of Religion and the Church Left margin: Ex Benedicto Monacho in vita H:2 Ex Adamo Merioneth Ex rot par a[nn]o 4: R:2: as in the yeare 1166 to: H: 2 was giuen 12d in the pound, And in the 18 of E: the 1st: a fifteenth was granted to expell the Iew's, And a[nn]o 4 R: 2: a tenth of the Clergie, and a fifteenth of the Com[m]ons for his helpe to suppresse the wicklivian heresie.

Left margin: 3 For support of the lawes and liberties of the Left margin: Ex Rado Cogshall Ex hist Rostens: Com[m]on wealth, soe did the State to H: 3: a[nn]o 27: for Confirmac[i]on of the greate Charter, For Left margin: Rot par a[nn]o 23: E: 1: & 13: E: 3: et: 7: H: 4: the like a Fifteenth was granted: 29: (or 23) E: 1: adn 13:E: 3 and 7: H: 4: that the lawes may bee executed ag[ains]t Purveyors:

Left margin: 4 For redresse of the aggreiuances as in the 15th of E Left margin: Rot: par: a[nn]o 15: E: 3: no: 16: 3: so that the king would p[er]forme their petitions, or else they held themselus not bound to pay the grant Left margin: Ex rot par a[nn]o 7: 8:9:10:11:R:2 they had giuen: The like was the 7: 8: 9: 10: & 11: of R;2: The 10th and 15th granted the 4 and 7 of H [th]e 5 is vpon Condic[i]on, that the king lay noe imposiLeft margin: Ex rot par a[nn]o 4: et 7 H: 5 tions vpon the state And 7 E:4 the state releiueth the king, so hee will promise to liue hereafter Left margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 7 E: 4: vpon his owne, and not burthen the state, the w[hi]ch hee there protesteth to p[er]forme.


Right margin: Ex orig: a[nn]o: 3 R:2 And it is to bee observed; that to improve the grants of subsidies to the extreamest value, there were new Comission[e]rs appointed to survey and advance mens Fortunes aboue the estimate of the former taxes.

Right margin: Claus a[nn]o 6H: 3: And Comiss[io]ns haue been granted out as 3 R:2: to inable him out of his owne by an act of resumpc[i]on of Landes, offices Annuities &c

Right margin: Claus: a[nn]o 6 H: 3: Thus did H: 3: a[nn]o 6

Right margin: Ret ordinat a[nn]o 5: et Claus a[nn]o 9: et: 10: E: 2 And E:2 a[nno] 5to: 9: et: 10: by an ordinac[i]on of the pr[e]lates, Earles, and Barons.

Right margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 1: R: 2 All grants made by E: 3: to vnworthy persons R: 2: resumed: a[nn]o 1o:

Right margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 1o 2: et 6: H: 4 And by H 4 a[nn]o 6 all Pat[en]ts for life or yeares since the 40th of E:3 were resumed,

Right margin: Ex rot par a[nn]o 1:o et: 2 H: 5 At the petic[i]on of the people: H: the 5 revoaks all grants out of the principalitie made to vnworthy persons, and all annuities out of the customes of wooles, deducting 10000l out of all other annuall pensions rateably, leaving the remaine, if any to the Patentees

Right margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 28 29: et 33:H:6: H the 6: a[nn]o 28:29: et 33: resumeth in England all Landes, offices, liberties, and grants from An[n]o Right margin: Rot par a[nn]o 4: 7: et 12: E: 4: Ex act Conc a[nn]o 21 H: 6: Rot par: a[nn]o 2 H: 7: primo And the like a[nn]o 21: in Ireland. Soe did Edward the 4th a[nn]o 4: 7: et 12: And Hen: 7th a[nn]o 2: resumed all grauntes made by E:4: or R:3:

Right margin:

1 Voluntarie
2 compelsiue

Left margin: 2 Perticular or

1/ Loanes voluntarie, as vpon assurance of bloud of the Nobilitie So was William de le Poole 66v Left margin: Rot: par: a[nn]o 13: E:3: bound for E: 3: a[nn]o 13: in greate sum[m]es And the Duke of Gloucester a[nn]o 20: H: 6: And the Left margin: Act Conc 20: et 22: H: 6: Cardinall pawned his silver vessells for H: 6: his Debt

Pawne vpon Iewells

Left margin: Claus: a[nn]o 26: H:3: Thus did H: 3: a[nn]o 26 to the Archb[isho]pp of York And when his own were at gage, hee tooke Aurum et iocalia Feretri Sancti Edwardi Confessoris and pawned them

Left margin: Claus a[nn]o 29 E: 1st: Edward 1st imployed one Andaver ad iocalia sua impignoranda

Left margin: Rot Franc: a[nn]o 9: E:2 Edward the second pawned his Iewells to [th]e Lord Beaumont

Left margin: Comun: inscript 30: E: 3 Edw: 3 pawned magnam Coronam Angliæ to S[i]r Io: Wesenham for 8 yeares

Left margin: Par a[nn]o 7 R: 2 R: 2: pawned vasa aurca et diuersa iocalia to S[i]r Robert Knolles

Hen: 4 inuadiauit tabellas et tresellas suas argentas de Hispania

Left margin: Par: a[nn]o 5: H: 5 H: 5 pawned his great Crowne of gold to the rich B[isho]pp of Winchester.

And H: 6 to the same man then Cardinall Left margin: Par a[nn]o 10: 12 et 29: H: 6 pawned many p[ar]cells of his Iewells in the 10: 12: and 29th of his raigne, And the like to many others

And the late Queene to ease her people did [th]e like w[i]th her Iewells in the Tower, besides the often morgage of her Land.

Vpon assignement of Customes and Subsidees

Soe did the Cardinall Beauford lend 10000l to 67r Right margin: Act Conc a[nn]o 22 H: 6 H: 6th: a[nn]o 22: vpon securitie of the Customes of London and South[amp]ton the King intending to turne the course of most trade thither. And H: 6: a[nn]o 15th Right margin: Ex Billa signata a[nn]o 15 H:6: et 12 E: 4 and E:4: a[nn]o 12: did secure their Debtes by assignm[en]t ouer of the next subsidie or ayde that should bee granted from the Church or Laytie, to whomthem, being a demise / in truth to draw on a supplie the sooner from the state.

Vpon the great seale or the priuate seale.

Right margin: Rot orig 33: H: 4 m[ar]ked BB: The great Seale, vnder w[hi]ch they should haue (w[i]thout paying Fee) a Patent sealed for paym[en]t of their dues by a day certeine.

The priuie Seale, w[hi]ch is of late the most in vse And it is of late worthie of observac[i]on to see the willingnes of former times in respect of those.

Right margin: Rot act Conc a[nn]o 13: H: 4 In the 13 H: 4:th there is a Roll intitled Les nommes de ceux que ont da prester an Roy Les sommes esocits. The ArchB[isho]p of Cant lent 1000 markes, the B[isho]p of Lincolne as much The B[isho]p of London 500 marks, The B[isho]pp of Norwich 600l The B[isho]pp of Bath 400 marks, The Lord priuy seale 200l. The Clarks of the Chancery 1000 markes.

Perticuler graunts of the sub[jec]t by loane compulsiue.

Right margin: Ex ordine Conc a[nn]o 3: H: 5 m[ar]ked NN: Soe where the marchants of Florence, Venice and Luke compelled by an order in Councell: 3: H: 5 because they had by grace et sufferance du Roy grantes priuileges &c reportants grand lucre pour lexercise de leur merchandreen le Angleterre And the p[er]sons that refused to lend were comitted to the Fleet

Left margin: Act Conc: 30: H: 6 Neither were the English more free a[nn]o 30: H: 6 diuerse being enioyned to attend the Councell table, or else to pay the demanded loane.


Left margin: Ex Instruct Com[m]iss 14 H: 8 In the time of Hen: 8 a[nn]o 14 of his raigne hee exacteth by way of loane 10l in the hundred of all goods Iewells, vtensells, and land, according to the extreamest rate revealed by oath of the possessors

Notwithstanding there is a law :2: R:2: that none shall bee denied (in demand of any loane) his reasonable excuse.

Perticuler graunts of the Sub[jec]t by contribuc[i]on or beneuolent guifts:

Left margin: Ex charta Epi Cant Rot claus :29:E:1: Claus 35:E:3 Theis were of old vsuall and free, and therefore called liberalitas popule by R:1: and Curialitas by E:1: E:3 H:4 And H:5: confessed them to proceed ex spontanea voluntate nec de iure vindicare potest. yet did H: 6: a[nn]o 20: in an Instrucc[i]on to Comission[e]rs imployed in Left margin: Ex instruct orig a[nn]o 20: H: 6: procuring a beneuolence, say That for as much as by the Law hee might compell all his Sub[jec]ts, and at their owne charg to attend his warres, hee was contented to spare such, as would but contribute as much after his degree and reputac[i]on as two Dayes in his p[er]sonall service would stand him in, thereby implying a necessitie in them to giue, to escape a further expence. Left margin: Ex act par a[nn]o 3: Maria This Law vpon w[hi]ch H: 6: grounded himselfe was by a stat in queene Maryes tyme, repealed. and that since repealed this last yeare, hath made a reveveing of the former, whereby the king is remitted into his former advantage, and the Sub[jec]t in the former mischeife, Left margin: Ex Instruct orig: a[nn]o 17: H:8: H: 8: a[nn]o 17 although hee moueth for a beneuolence, hee sought it w[i]th noe other style then an amicable graunt, yet he threatned the refusers w[i]th Convention before his Councell, imprisonm[en]t & confiscac[i]on of Goodes


The Kings rayse money and improue the Reuenewes of [th]e Crowne

Right margin:

1 Landes
2 Marchandize
3 Regalities

By power absolute in the soveraigne in disposeinge

Left margin: 1 Landes, as by selling, w[hi]ch hath been often & old, if they were not of the antient demesne Landes, w[hi]ch our Fathers held impious to aleenate from the Crowne. And those are such landes as goe vnd[e]r the title of Terra Regis, in the Booke of Right margin: Lib: Doomsday Doomesday, and were the landes of Edw: the confessor. Of other Landes I neu[er] obserued question, Neither do euer finde that Acts of resumption euer reached to Landes that were sold for valuable consideration.

By passinge in Fee farme, except places of the kings residence, Parks, Spatious wasts, or Forrests, all the Landes of the Crowne w[hi]ch remaine either in the annexation, Costodie Landes, or the queenes Ioynture and exceed not yearly 3200l, Theis although largelie estated out in seu[er]all natures, some for liues some for years, will notone with the other, bee advanced to a treble Rent, w[hi]ch amounting to 64000l And if the offer bee not made restrictive for the new ten[an]t, there is no doubt but his Ma[jes]tie shall finde readie and hartie vndertakers amongst [th]e gentree and Nobilitie too, who haue any place of residence neere any of his Ma[jes]ties mannors, & the kings securitie the better, since their abilities will settle the Fee Farme Rent vpon more land then the purchase

If any shall obiect ag[ains]t this, a losse by Fines and proffittes of Courts, a preiudice in not serveing necessarilie (as of late) by sales or diminution of Regalities in seizure of so many Royalties


It may bee answered to the First, That the casuall p[ro]ffitts of Co[u]rts neu[er] defrayed to the p[rese]nte offic[e]rs their Fee and expences. And this appeareth by a Collecc[i]on made the 44th yeare of the late queene, where the totall issue of such certeine charge exceeded the receipt of such changes aboue 8000l

To the second if looking vpon the seu[er]all rates of the kings Landes exposed to the Fee Farme sales, wee fynd some at 50 others at 21 yeares, as to the late Contractors, and make out of theis extreames a medium of the largest 40 yeares, and set on the other side the Com[m]on and current estimate for dead rents 15 yeares p[ur]chase, wee must find, that 50l land sold vnimproued respectiulie to the like trebled by a Fee Farme, wilbee 250l losse to his Ma[jes]tie in the sale.

As for Regallityes, though it may add somewhat to a Sub[jec]t in increasinge such his pettee Com[m]aund it can nothing to a Soveraigne, whose transcendent power drowneth in it all such subordinate dependances and reguards.{wegards}

But if wee consider besides the former imp[ro]um[en]t the increase of casuall aduantage and diminution of certeine charge, wee shall haue iust cause not to continue this course.

For if the Com[m]ission[e]rs in this busines may bee ordered by instruction to reserue vpon euery mannor of aboue 30l p[er]anu[m] a tenure inof of Knights service by halfe a Fee, and aboue 50l in Capite by an intire Fee, and of the purchase to pay his rent into the his Receipt of 69r himselfe halfe yearly, and strick there his tally, the former will aduance the revenue accedentall of the Crowne in wardshipps, primer seisin, alienations, and aydes, at the latter cut off at once so many their vnnecessarie Receiuors, Auditors, Stewards, Bayliffs and Clarks, as stand the king in yearly aboue 12000l

As for other dues or casuall Reuenews, w[hi]ch now fall vnder the Charge of theis officers, the Collection and payment maybee, as it hath beene with the rest, from the time of Hen: 2 vntill late Dayes, layd on the Sheriffs of the Shires and all the accounts left to the two Auditors of Presse to draw vpp, and the Clarke of [th]e Pype to enter in magno Rotulo as in former time; For it must seeme strang to all men of Iudgment, that it should bee with those officers (who had their begining but since the 25 yeare of H:8: by addic[i]on of his new revenews of 15000l from the suppressd Manasteries) otherwise then w[i]th all things in nature and reason cessante causacessat et effectus, not to bee discontinued, when as all Crowne annexed Lands, that gaue them their Iust imploym[en]t, are, for the most parte, passed from the soveraigne into the subiects possession.

Besides this of a gen[er]all disposeing in Fee farme, there hath beene a proiect in p[ar]ticular to enfranchize the Copyholders in the seu[er]all Mannors, w[hi]ch I should hold to bee of more pr[e]iudice to his Ma[jes]tie then the former bringing w[i]th it all the former inconveniences, losse of Fines, Regalities, and advantages of sale, and being without many of [th]e advantages, as Ward[shi]ps, primer seisin, alienac[i]on, & aydes, for noe man will buy Quilletts but in soccage and discontinuance of officers who must still remaine though they can bring the King but little proffitt


Left margin: 2 By Farminge out for yeares lands Casualties or wastes, As in the 7 of Hen: 4 the state held it more iust to helpe the King out of his Left margin: Rot par a[nn]o 7 H: 4: owne, then to burthen the Com[m]on wealth, and therefore gaue way by p[ar]lem[en]t to the king to improue vpp his Lands thoug in Lease Prouided that the Lessee should haue refusall of the bargaine if hee would.

Left margin: Rot Fin: a[nn]o 2:E:1 E: the 1st a[nn]o 2 granted a Comis[sio]n to farme out all such wast quod absq[ue] iniuria alterius fieri potest and in anno 15 asserted a great Left margin: Rot par a[nn]o 15:E: 1: parte of his woodes for Rent, and disafforested in most Counties of England for a sum[m]e of Left margin: Rot claus: a[nn]o 17: E:1: money they gaue him.

And it was not the least of Charitable thrift in the King to reduce much of his wast to habitac[i]on of Christians, especially the remote Forrests, w[hi]ch would increase many thousand Families for his service and bring many thousand pounds to his Coffers.

But in the carriage of this busines, there must bee much caution to pr[e]vent comoc[i]on, For in them there are manie that haue right of Com[m]on sans membre and the resoluc[i]on in agreem[en]t w[i]th them must bee suddaine and confident, For multituds are iealous and inconstant, and the instrum[en]ts to effect this must bee such as bee neighbors interessed and popular, not strangers; and the First demise to the inhabitants, and at vnder and easie values

3 By manuringe of Lands

Left margin: Rot Claus a[nn]o 13: H:3: m: 10: Thus did H: 3: a[nn]o 13: in remoueing out of 70r of most of his parks (as Gillingham Briggstock Cliffe, Woodstock, Haverell, &c) all mens Cattle pro bobus pro lardaria Regis in Parcis prædictis impinguendis

And E: 1: com[m]anded all the Escheators in England excolere seminare et appropriare ad maximum Regis proficuum omnes terras quæ Regi et cononæ suæ deuenerint per mortem aliquorum vocatione Episcoptuum &c

  1. 2 The Kings raise money and improue the Reuenews of the Crowne

1 tradinge themselues
2 lycensinge others to trade Right margin:

1 lawfull
2 vnlawfull

Left margin: By marchandize Comodities
3 Improueing Customes.

Left margin: 1 Trading themselues. Thus did E: a[nn]o 22: who Right margin: Rot par vas con 22 E:1: seised into his hands all the wools in the Kingdome as the marchants were ladeing them in the Ports, giueing them securitie of paym[en]t at a long day, and a short prize, And then transported them to his own best and readiest vse.

Thus did E: 3: a[nn]o 12: w[i]th all the tyme, And H 6 a[nn]o 20 by advice of his Councell tooke vp by way Right margin: Ex Billa signata a[nn]o 31: 32: H: 6 of purveyance, a greate quantitie of graine, and transported it into Gascoigne, where by reason of a dearth the price was extreame. And in a[nn]o 31 hee arrested all in the tynne in Sout[hamp]ton and sold it to his owne present vse: And in the year following vsing the advantage of the Stat w[hi]ch bound all men to trade the Staple Com[m]odities to no other place but Cal[a]ice vented himselfe many sacks of wooll to other ports of better advantage


And the late queen a[nn]o 1567 caused by warrant of priuie Seale a greate p[ro]porc[i]on of beere to bee Left margin: warr: sub priuato sigillo a[nn]o 9 Eliz: Reg: purveyed, transported and sold to her vse beyond the seas.

Right margin:

1 lawfull

2 By lycensing others to trade Comodities

Left margin: 1 Lawfull, but soly

Left margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 29 H:6: n:15 Thus did H: 6: by approbac[i]on of parliam[en]t w[i]thall the trade of allom for two yeares, granted the marchants of Sout[hamp]ton for 8000l, and againe for the like sum[m]e to those of Genoway

Left margin: 2 Vnlawfull or prohibited

Thus did many of the kings after there such time as the heavy burden of imposition began in Left margin: Rot: Claus: a[nn]o 91: H: 3 the miserable necessitie of H: 3: called then by no better name then maltolt and continued vntill [th]e 15 yeare of R:2 by diuerse intermissions (for then Left margin: Rot par: a[nn]o 15: R: 2: I finde the last petic[i]on of many in p[ar]liam[en]t ag[ains]t it) was altogether taken away, For when R:2: and his successors found the Revenew lessened by the importunate cry of their people, whereby impositions were layd aside, they began to devise another sup[p]ly out of the vnbounden power of supposed prerogative; And finding a greedie desire of one marchant to pr[e]vent another of his markett (restrained by that Stat w[hi]ch tyed them to one time & one Port, Callice for all Staple Comodities) they vsed to sell Lycenses w[i]th clause of non obstante any Statute, whereby they dispenced w[i]th multitudes, to trade what comodities, and to what places they would, To the marchants of Newcastle :R: 2 gaue leave to carry wooll fells &c to any other Port besides Callice, vpon Condic[i]on that they should 71r pay for them Custome and Subsidie according to le sage discretion de vous au de vostre Counseil Right margin: Ex pet: a[nn]o 7 H:4: to diuerse Cittizens of London :H:4 in like sorte dispenseth for great quantities of Tynn for seuen yeares, paying 4000l yearly aboue the Custome

Right margin: Ex pet a[nn]o 5 H: 6 H: 6: a[nn]o 5: 21: 30 reneweth to the towne of Newcastle the same lycense they had a[nn]o 20: R:2 and granteth 600 sacks of wooll to Benedict Benony marchant of Florence w[i]th non obstante Right margin: Ex act Conc: any statute or restraint. In this yeare such lycenses were so frequent, that the towne of Callice complayned in p[ar]liam[en]t of their decay thereby, yet without releife, as it seemeth, For the same king a[nn]o 36: giueth leaue to Lawrence Barbarico to transport from London to Cicester 12000l sacks Right margin: Ex Billa orig: a[nn]o 10: E: 4 of wooll to what partes hee list. And E: 4. a[nn]o 10 borrowing 1000l of diuerse marchants p[er]mitteth them, non obstante any Law to carry any staple Comodities to the streights of Morrocco, vntill they were satisfied there sum[m]e

Right margin: Ex Billa compot inter H: 7:et: Dudley H: 7: raised much money by giueing leaue to many marchants to trade inward and outward Comodities prohibited As, to Alonso de Burgues, greate proporc[i]ons of woad a[nn]o 6 H:7 And to a multitude of others all kinds of graine and other forbidden things As in a[nn]o 20: 21: 22:

Right margin:

  1. Farming out of shipps
  2. Raising the booke of Rates
  3. Farming the Customes
3 Improueing of Customes by

Left margin: 1 Farming out of Shipps the marchants and takeing securitie of them, either to bring in or carry out yearlie as much Comodities as shall yeild the King in Customes the sume agreed on, or else to make it vp out of their owne money. Thus did H: 7: many yeares not only w[i]th his Shipps but w[i]th diuerse stocks of money

Left margin: 2 Raising the Booke of Rates This was in some 71v some sorte done consensu merceator by E: 1 and E: 3: and againe in H: 8 tyme, of w[hi]ch Left margin: Rot claus: 29. E:1 Rot Almaign 3:E:3 Extract Bruxells the house of Burgundee complayned as ag[ains]t the treate of inter course, and of late so stretched, as it is feared, it will proue the ouerthrow of trade Neither doe I finde this course at any other time.

As a branch of this may aptlie fall out the benefitt Princes made by a Prerogatiue power of imposeing inward and outward upon Comodities ouer and aboue the antient custome or subsidie

The first that vsed this course after the state was setled from a king of a voluntary gou[er]nm[en]t after the Conquest (when as kings ruled more by the edge of the sword then by rule of Law) was H: 3 about the entrance of his Raigne But finding it to bee an apparent ou[er]throw of Com[m]erce and trade and ag[ains]t Left margin: Magna carta ca 30: the greate Charter made proclamac[i]on a[nn]o 16 H: 3: in all portes of England, that all marchants might come faciendo rectas et debitas Left margin: Dors claus a[nn]o 16 H: 3: no:20 consuetudines, nec sibi timeant de malis toltis For it had noe better name then maltolts

Left margin: Stat a[nn]o 25: E:1 Some impositions being laid by E: 1: hee in anno 25 taketh them away w[i]th promise that neither hee nor his successors should doe Left margin: Rot par 31: E: 1 m: 42 any such thing w[i]thout assent of p[ar]liam[en]t, granting in a[nn]o 31: to the marchants many im[m]unities, as release of prisage, for w[hi]ch they requite him w[i]th some increase of Customes, Left margin: Stat 34: E: 1: ca: 1: et: 2 but not as imposed by his owne power, For hee in a[nn]o 34 declareth that noe tallage or 72r or ayde should bee levied without the assent of p[ar]liam[en]t, nor any thing to bee taken of wools by collor of maltolt

Right margin: Ordinat a[nn]o 5: E: 2 cap: 14: In E: 2: it appeareth the levying of new customes and raysing of old, was the destrucc[i]on of traffique, and therefore repealed all Maltolts Onlie in a[nn]o 11 et 12 hee taketh by way of loane, and hwe with leave of the marchants Right margin: Rot Claus a[nn]o 11: E:2 some former increase vpon woolls, ascribinge nothing to any supreame power to impose

Right margin: Rot Fin: 1:E:3 stat: 2: E: 3: ca 9: The like did E: 3: a[nn]o 1o: confirming in a[nn]o 2o: the great Charter of Free traffique. But haueing about a[nn]o 5 grant|ed certeine Commis[sio]ns for a new kinde of raising tallage, the people complayned the yeare following, Right margin: Rot par: 6: E: 3 wherevpon hee repealeth the said Commiss[io]ns, & promiseth neu[er] to assesse anie but as in time of his Ancestors After in a[nn]o 11: by reason Right margin: Stat 11: E: 3: cap: 1 of a Stat then made restrayning all men vpon paine of death for transporting any wooles w[i]thout lycense from the king

E: 3 made great advantage by selling of dispensation of that Law, and grounded vpon it many impositions, but it fell so heauy vpon the people, that their discontents so farr increased, that the king was inforced to cause [th]e ArchB[ishop] of Cant to p[er]swade them to patience by Right margin: Stat 13: E: 3: Rot par a[nn]o 13 E: 3: his godly exhortac[i]ons, yet notwithstanding hee continued by gentle intermissions the aduantage hee had by that Law, takeing an improuem[en]t of custome for openinge the passage, that there Right margin: Stat 14: E: 3: by was shutt in a[nn]o 13 vntill the same yeare the same State made purchase of their former freedome and discharge of the Maltolt by granting the 10th sheafe and Fleece &c


And thus it continued all his Raigne, being a time of greate necessitie and expence by reason of the warrs, hee sometimes taking the advantage either to raise an imposition, or else to gaine an ayde from the people, in discharge thereof, they continuallie vrging the iniurie in barring them their birth right, And the king on the other side the greatnesse of his owne occasions

And it may bee gathered by Record that thus it held on vntill the 15 R: 2: In w[hi]ch yearesis the last petic[i]on ag[ains]t impositions, gen[er]ally grounded (in likely hood) from the kings power in restrayninge or p[er]mitting trade, All the tyme Left margin: Licence granted by H:4: H:5: H:6: to many m[er]chants w[i]th non obstante any statute: after although lycense{s}s w[i]th non abstante were ordinary, yet were they to priuate p[er]sons, and for p[ar]ticular proporc[i]ons of com[m]odities, whereby the kings succeedinge raised noe lesse benefitt then by sale of any gen[er]all p[er]mission.

Left margin: Ordinat Conc a[nn]o 12: H:6 To this of impositions I may add the rule I find a[nn]o 12 H: 6 made in Councell That the value of all goods for paym[en]t of subsidie shall bee rated of Comodities domesttique, as they may bee sold beetweene marchant and m[ar]chant, And if Forreine, then so as it shall appeare vpon oath of the marchant or his Factor they stood them in at first. And the gen[er]al maxime w[hi]ch limitts all regall advantage vpon trade of marchantes is ut causa honesta sit et necessaria, Ratio facilis, tempus idoneum

Left margin: Claus a[nn]o 5: E: 3: 3: Farming out of Customes. So did E:3: w[i]th the old and new Customes at London for 1000 m[ar]kes monthly, to bee paid into the wardrobe, The like hee did a[nn]o 17:

R:2: a[nn]o 20: letteth out for terme of life the subsidie of Cloath in diuerse Counties, And E:4: a[nn]o 7o: the subsidie of vluage of Cloth.


Thus did H: 8: w[i]th his Customes, And since his time the late queene, and our now Soveraigne Master, And it was so then in vse in the best gouerned State (Rome) w[hi]ch let out their porc[i]ons and decimes to the Publicans

3 Kings raise money and improue the Revenews of the Crowne.

Left margin: By Regalityes or Right margin: as for

  1. Liberties &c
  2. Penalties of Lawes
  3. L[ett]res of fauour


Left margin: 1 Liberties, in granting, restrayning, or renewing them.

It is a course vsuall, that kings have raised by calling in question, the Charters and liberties of Corporac[i]ons, Leetes, Free Warrens, and other Royalties

Thus did R: 1st: proclayming q[uo]d omnes Charta Right margin: Ex Rodo Cogshall et confirmationes quæ prioris sigilli impressione roborauerint, irritæ forent nisi posteriori sigillo roborentur

And H: 3: a[nn]o 10: enioyed all qui suis volebant libertatibus gaudere, vt innouarent Chartas suas de nouo Regis sigillo, getting money therby

E: 1st: by diuerse Com[m]issions w[i]th articles called Right margin: Rot Ragman a[nn]o 7: E:1: Articuli de Ragman annexed to them, called in question about a[nn]o 7: all the liberties and freedomes of England Gilbert de Thornton his Atturney, putting in Informac[i]on by quo warranto against all p[er]sons, aswell bodies politique Right margin: Rot quo warr: a[nn]o 8: E:1: as others, whereby they were enforced a new to renewe their Charters, and fine for their lib[er]ties.


Left margin: Rot quo warr 13: E: 3 Com term: Hill a[nn]o 9. E:3: Rot:8 The like was in a[nn]o 13: E:3: in whose time a[nn]o 9: all Clauses of allowances by Charter of amerciam[en]ts Fines &c imposed by the Kinges Ministers vpon of the ten[n]ants of other men, were adiudged voyd, and the penalties made payable to the kings officers, vnlesse they made a new purchase of their lib[er]ties, and this was one of the vsuallest and easiest meanes to raise money formfrom the people, because it lighteth vpon, only{gap: illegible} the best abilities. And if there were now but XXl taken of euery Corporac[i]on, of euery p[er]son that holdeth by Charter his liberties 5l for renewing them, and of euery one that Claymeth by pr[e]scripc[i]on 10l for purchase of a Charter, all w[hi]ch would bee easie and acceptable, it would amount to aboue 100000l

Left margin: 2 For penall Lawes, they haue beene some times, but w[i]th ill successe wrought vpon.

Left margin: Instruct orig: 22: R: 2 When R:2: a[nn]o 22: began this course appointing in all his Comiss[io]ns and Instructions, Bushey only to bee of the quorum for compounding w[i]th the Delinquents, It wrought in the affecc[i]ons of his people, such distrust that it grewe the death of the one, and deposition of the other

Left margin: Proc contra Dudley: 1o: H: 8 Noe lesse fatall was the like to Empson: & dudly, and there is no string will sooner iarr in the Com[m]on wealth then this, if it be gen[er]ally touched.

Left margin: 3 For letters of fauour, either for mitigac[i]on or dispatch of Iustice.

Of the first sorte there bee many found in H:6: and E:4: his time, somtimes of p[ro]tecc[i]on, although by course of Com[m]on Law none ar warrantable but to such as are goeing in 74r in obsequium Regis, or ibidem moraturi, sometimes freeing men from arrests, by calling them vp to appeare before the Kings Councell sometimes in cases highly criminall releiueing [th]e prison[e]r, in com[m]anding to Iudges to make stay of all proceedings vpon supposall of indirect practises vntill the King was better informed

Right margin: Lib acquitt inter: H:7: et Dudly Of the second sorte there are many in H:7 his time, where the K[ing] hath taken money, for writeing to the Iudges of Assize his letters of Favour.

Left margin: 4 For officers, thus did king Iohn w[i]th the Chancellorsh[i]pp selling it for terme of life to Gray for 5000 markes.

Diuerse offices now in the guift of the M[aste]r of the Rolls were ingaged to the Chancellour of treasuror of England, as are to bee seene in Records of H:4: H:5: and H:6: to bee passed by warrant of the kings hand, and vpon some considerac[i]on. And H:7 renewed this course, vsing Dudly as his instrum[en]t to compound w[i]th suitors for those and any other places. And by that Record wee finde that Chauncellor the cheife Iustice, the keepers of most of the Records, the Clerks of the Assize and peace, the Masters of the game and parks, and whatsouever else carrying either proffitt or reputac[i]on, paid to the king some proporc[i]on of money, for their places. Neither is this differ[en]t from the course of other States, For in France Right margin: Æmilius in victi Lewis: 12 Lewis the 12 (called the Father of his Country) did so w[i]th all offices, not being of Iudicature, w[hi]ch his Successors did not forbeare.

Right margin: Vasques cap: 43/40 In Spaine it is vsuall And Vasques the Spanish Aduocate defendeth the lawfulnes of it. And Charles the 5th pr[e]scribeth it to his sonn Right margin: Instruct Car:5: to Phillip:2: as a rule in his last instrucc[i]on, drawing his 74v his ground of reason and conveniencie from [th]e example and practise of the See of Rome.

The like might bee of all inferior promoc[i]ons that are or may bee, in the kings guift, whether Ecclesiasticall, or temporall, if they were after the true value, in proffitt and reputac[i]on, listed into rankes accordinge to the seu[er]all natures of their imploym[en]ts respectiuelie

Left margin: 5 For hon[ou]rs, and that either by pow[e]r legall or election.

Of the first, It is onlie in respect of land, whereby euery man is to fyne when the King shall require, that hath abilitie to bee made a Kn[igh]t, and is not, of this sort their bee plentie of examples.

The other out of choise and grace, as Hugo de Putiaco B[isho]pp of Durham was by king R:2: created Earle of Northumberland for a great sum[m]e of money And I doubt not but many of theis times would set their Ambition at as high a price, And for his Ma[jes]tie now to make a degree of hon[ou]r hereditaree, as Baronetts next vnder Barons, and grant them in taile, takeing of euery one 1000l in fyne, it would raise w[i]th ease 100000l, and by a iudicious elecc[i]on bee a meanes to content those worthy p[er]sons in the Com[m]on wealth, that by the confused admission of many knights of the Bath, held themselues all this time disgraced.

Left margin: 6 For Coyne and Bullion, by w[hi]ch, although some kings out of a last shift haue seemed to releiue themselues, yet was it (in truth) full of danger and distrust to the Com[m]on 75r wealth, being an assured token of a bankrupt State, and to the Prince in conclusion of most disadvantage, For the revenews of the Crowne being com[m]only incerteine Rents, they must, in true value, howsoeu[er] in verball sound, bee abated to the proporc[i]on that the money shalbee abased. And euery man will rate his com[m]oditie in sale, not according to the account of pence or pounds, but to the weight of the pure silver conteyned in the current money, As for example, that w[hi]ch was before the decrying of the coyne worth 5s: in the pound weight, will (if the allay bee to the halfe) bee held at 10s: And so in euery proporc[i]on respectiuly; For money is not meerly to bee esteemed in respect of the sculpture or Figure, but it must value in pecunia quantum in massa, And silver is a Comoditie as other wares, and therefore holdeth its estimac[i]on as they doe, according to the goodnes, And the Lo[rd] Treasur[er] Burleigh in a[nn]o 1561 when the current of state Councell affected an abas'm[en]t of Coyne, after a grave deliberac[i]on, advised the queene from it, and never would giue way to any such resoluc[i]on in his time.

But that benefitt w[hi]ch truly the king may make more of bullion then now hee doth, is to erect againe Cambium Regis, his owne Excheq[ue]r, an office as antient as before: H: 3: and so continued vntill the midle of H: 8: the proffitt of it being now ingrossed amongst a few Goldsmiths and would yeald aboue 10000l a yeare, if it were heedfully regarded, and then should the king himselfe keep his mint in continuall worke, and not stand at the deuoc[i]on of others to supply Bullion, and should neu[er] want the materealls if two things were observed. The one to p[er]mitt all men bringing in Bullion to trade outward the value thereof in domestique 75v Comodities at an abated Custome, the other to abate the mightie indraught of Foreine Manufactures and vnnecessarie wares, that the outward trade might ouer ballance the inward, w[hi]ch otherwise will (as it hath done) drow on Left margin: Ex Sccio inter Remembr Regis 27o: E:3 this desperate Consumpc[i]on of the Com[m]on wealth, w[hi]ch in a[nn]o 27: E: 3: was otherwise, for then the Exitus exceed the introitus pounds. And in the last times of the late queene as in a[nn]o For at this time the vnmeasurable vse of Luxurious Comodities was brought in, as wynes, spices, silke and finne lynnens &c For of the later sort of aboue ten groates the ell there is aboue 360000l yearly spent, w[hi]ch is halfe [th]e value of our Clothes transported, maketh the State to buy more then they do sell, whereas a good Father of a Familie ought to be vendacem and not emacem. Besides the Condic[i]on of our people is now such that the greater parte neither gett nor saue, w[hi]ch in a priuate house is an apparent argument of ruyninge, and must bee no lesse in a Com[m]on wealth, And it is observed gen[er]allie, that hence the want of Bullion now is such, that there is not money sufficient to pay the lend[e]rs their principall, so that vsurie is paid for mony vpon supposition, & not really.

If then his Ma[jes]tie shall bee pleased by advise of his Councell to advantage himselfe any other wise by Coynage, it will bee safer to doe it vpon a simple mettall, then by any implyant or bett[e]r suite, w[hi]ch well gouerned States both moderne & antient vsed. For Rome in her increase & greatest pitch of glory had there money ære argento auro puro puto And so haue all the 76r Monarchies absolute at this Day in Christendome, And I beleeve it my bee wrought to his Ma[jes]tie of good value, and to the State of much ease, if it may bee put in practise w[i]th discreete caution, & constant resoluc[i]on, For the danger may bee onlie in the ventinge of the quantitie, w[hi]ch may clogg the State w[i]th vsles money, or execution of example, w[hi]ch may worke in by degrees an abasem[en]t of Bullion

The proportion that I would hold beneficiall and safe should bee in the masse at first 120000l, by w[hi]ch his Ma[jes]tie should gaine 10000l cleerlie, in w[hi]ch his Ma[jes]tie should gaine 1000l And the limitation, that none bee inforced to take any but in sum[m]es vnder XXs and then but the twentieth part proporc[i]onable

Against this some may obiect, that it will either not advantage the king so much as is p[ro]iected, either from the difficulty in venting, or facilitie in Counterfeitinge, or else pr[e]iudice the State w[i]th a vselesse money.

The benefitt of the king will easilie fall out, if hee restrayne Retaylors of victuall and small wares forom vseing their owne tokens, For in and about London there are aboue 3000 that one w[i]th an other cast yearlie 5l a peece of leaden tokens, whereof the 10th remaineth not to them at the yeares end, when they renewe their store, w[hi]ch amounteth to aboue 15000l And all the rest of this Realme cannot bee inferiour to the Cittie in proporc[i]on And the forme and figure may w[i]th an engine so subtel subtlelie bee milled, that the charge will pr[e]vent all practise of false play For the pr[e]iudice Since London (w[hi]ch is not the 24 part in people of the Kingdome) had in it found 800000 by a late inquirie by order of the late queene, and so falleth out 76v to bee 2d a person in the intire state, it may bee nothing either of losse by the first vtteringe, being so easie, nor burthen any w[i]th too great a masse at a time, since continuall vse will disperse so small a quantitie into so many hands. But on the other side, it will bee to the meaner sort (except the retaylors that made as much advantage formerly of their owne tokens, as the king shall now of necessary vse and benefitt, For the buy[e]rs hereafter shall not bee tyed to one sellor and his badd Comodities, as they are still, when his tokens, here after made currant by authoritie shall leaue him to the choise of any other Chapman, and to the poore in this time of small charitie it will bee of much releife, since many are like to giue a farthing alms that will not parte w[i]th a greater sum[m]e

Besides it cannot but pr[e]vent much wast of silver that by the myntinge pence, and halfe pence is occasioned, there will bee noe cause hereaft[e]r to cutt any Bullion into proporc[i]on so apt for losse. what that hath beene may bee coniectured if wee marke but of the greate quantities from the penney downwards since H:8: tyme stamped, how few remaine; whereas of all the Coynes from three pence vpwards w[hi]ch are manuable (or manuall) plentie passe still in dayly payments

Regalities mixt

As for Restituc[i]on of the temporallities of Abbotts and B[isho]pps for w[hi]ch H: 7 receiued great sumes.

Corodaries in Cathedrall Churches

And haueing in euery Cathedrall and Collegiat 77r Churches as incident to his Crowne {gap: illegible}a Corodarie, and made money of it at the highest rate hee could.

Vacancie of Byshoppricke

The benefitt of the vacancie of any B[isho]ps {gap: illegible} some kings haue vsed their best advantage makeing a circular remoue of as many as in reputac[i]on and proffitt were inferiour to the place voyd.

Concurrent Iurisdicc[i]on as the Pope had in former tymes

Besides theis there are two of noe meane Com[m]oditie

The one is grounded vpon a Concurrent Iurisdicc[i]on w[i]th the ordinary in the Diocesse, w[hi]ch the king, by haueing the power Papall in that point invested in him by act of p[ar]liam[en]t may exercise by his Com[m]ission or otherwise remitt to the ordinarie for some valuable respect. Thus did Right margin: Ex composit orig: inter Woolsy et ArchB[ishop] Cant dat: 14: H: 8 Cardinall Wolsey w[i]th Wareham the Archb[isho]pp & all other the B[isho]pps of the kindome, after he had gott his Legatiue power, And this if it were put in practise would drawe to the King 20000l into his Coffers.

Right margin: Tenthes of the Church landes now in [th]e Laytie

The other is the short accompt yeilded the king of such Eccl[esiast]i[c]all tenths and duties as were often & annually paid vnto the Pope in former times, & now by statute invested in the Crowne, For in former times the See of Rome received them not, as only out of the meere spiritualities, but also from out of all the temporalities of spirituall p[er]sons, w[hi]ch Landes being now devided from the Church into the hands of the Laytie, yet ought they to pay this duties, since they were setled in the Crowne by a former Law, and noe subsequent ever hath discharged them